[Event "?"]
[Site "Hastings"]
[Date "1895"]
[White "Pillsbury"]
[Black "Tarasch"]
[Result "1-0"]

1. d4 d5
2. c4 e6
3. Nc3 Nf6
4. Bg5 {It was Pillsbury who first demonstrated the
strength of the this move, which today is routine}
5. Nf3 Nd7
6. Rc1 O-O
7. e3 b6 {In order to develop the Queen Bishop on
Bb7. This was the most popular way of defending the
Queen's gambit declined at the time.}
8. cxd5 {Depriving Black of the opportunity to play
dxc4 when the diagonal b7-g2 would be open for his
Queen Bishop.} 8...exd5 ({The classical
continuation more common today is} 8..Nf6xd5 {which
accomplishes some exchanging after} 9. Bxe7, Qxe7 10.
Nxd5, e6xd5)
9. Bd3 Bb7
10. O-O c5 {A strategical necessity. Otherwise, this
pawn will remain backward and vulnerable to White's
Rook on the half open Queen Bishop file.}
11. Re1 {Whatever the purpose of this move, it turns
out to be a loss of time, for the Rook later goes
back to f1.}
11...c4 {This move releases the
tension in the center in order to commence a queen
side attack. White will counter this by an attack on
the other wing.}
12. Bb1 a6 {In order to play b5. Black's plan is to
advance his queen side pawns with the ultimate aim of
obtaining a passed pawn.}
13. Ne5 {The knight is here aggressively posted in the
neighborhood of Black's King.} 13...b5
14. f4 {This move furthers White's attack in several
ways. Should Black ever play Nxe5, White will
recapture with the Bishop Pawn and open his King
Bishop file. The White's King Bishop Pawn may later
in the game advance to f5, threatening to break up
Black's kingside by f6. White's King Rook now can
advance to Black's kingside by Rf1-Rf3 and Rg3 or
Rh3.} 14...Re8 {To be able to bring his Queen Knight
to Nf8, where it is an excellent defensive piece.}
15. Qf3 {Bringing the Queen to the attack.} 15...Nf8
16. Ne2 {Transferring the Knight to the kingside.}
16...Ne4 $1 {Black blocks the White King Bishop
diagonal and exchanges off his King Bishop. Each
exchange favors Black, for they lessen the vigor of a
kingside attack. Queen side attacks, by contrast,
are concerned with obtaining a passed pawn, which is
even more advantageous in the end game then the
middle game.}
17. Bxe7 {Black was threatening to win a piece with
f6} 17...Rxe7
18. Bxe4 {White is not happy to give up his King
Bishop, but there is no way to drive away Black's
Knight at e4, and as long as it remains there it is
more effective than the Bishop, whose diagonal itblocks.}
19. Qg3 {Black is not the only one who has gained
something from these exchanges. Now that Black's
Queen Bishop Pawn no longer has the support of a
Queen Pawn, he is much less free to advance his queen
side pawns, and his attack on the queen side is thus
slowed. White's backward King Pawn, which previously
was indirectly under pressure by Black's King Rook,
now has shelter behind Black's Pawn at the latter
e4.} 19...f6 {This slightly weakens Black's
kingside, but it is worth it to prevent White's King
Bishop Pawn from ever advancing to f6.}
20. Ng4 {Threatening 21. Nxf6+.} 20...Kh8
21. f5 {Cramping Black's kingside and vacating his f4
which can now be occupied by a Rook or a Knight.}
22. Rf1 {See note at move 11.} 22...Rd8 {Preparing
Qd6 to defend his f6 pawn a second time.}
23. Rf4 {White is embarking upon a plan to attack
Black's isolated King Pawn , and tie up Black's
pieces to its defense.} 23...Qd6
24. Qh4 Rde8
25. Nc3 Bd5 {To be able to guard the King Pawn again
by Qc6.}
26. Nf2 Qc6
27. Rf1 {White must be careful now about removing any
pieces from the queen side, for Black can play b4,
followed by Qa4, menacing White's queen side pawns.}
28. Ne2 Qa4 ({If Black tries to advance his c Pawn with} 28..c3 {there follows} 29. bxc3, bxc3 30. Nd1, c2 31. Ndc3, Bc4 32. d5, Bxd5 33. Rc1
{and Black loses his Queen Bishop Pawn.})
29 Ng4 Nd7 (29...Qxa2? 30. Nxf6 g7xf6 31.
Qxf6+ Kg8 (31..Rg7 32. Rg4) 32. Rg4+ {winning} )
30. R4f2 $1 {Defending the Queen Rook Pawn by a
clever combination.} Kg8
(30..Qxa2 31. Nf4, Bf7
32. Ng6 $1, Bxg6 33. f5xg6 h6 (33..Nf8 34. Nxf6, g7xf6 35.Rxf6, Kg8 36. Rf7
{forces mate.}) 34.Nxh6, g7xh6 35. Qxh6+, Kg8 36. Rf5 $1 { and black is
defenseless against 37. Rh5 and Qh8} )
31. Nc1 {Guarding his Queen Rook Pawn. If he had done
this on move
twenty-nine, Black would have had the crushing reply
Qc7.} 31...c3
{Black gets a passed Pawn.}
32. b3 Qc6 {Both sides now have clear cut plans.
Black will advance his
Queen Rook Pawn to a4, exchange pawns and bring a
Rook to a3 winning White's Queen Knight Pawn. White
will counter by advancing his King Knight Pawn to g5
and opening up his King Knight file.}
33. h3 {Making room for the Knight at h2.} 33...a5
34. Nh2 {White's attack looks slower than Blacks, but
White has a
stroke of genius prepared.} 34...a4
35. g4 axb3
36. axb3 Ra8 {With hindsight, the defensive 36..h6
might have been
37. g5
37..Ra3 (37...fxg5 38. Qxg5 Nf6 (38...Qf6 39. Qg3 -- 40. Ng4 ) 39. Ng4 {taking advantage
of black's pinned Knight, Followed by 40. Ne5, when the Knight will be devastatingly
powerful.} )
38. Ng4 Bb3 ({At this moment neither Tarasch nor the
onlookers had any doubt that white was finished. In
the February 1971 issue of Chess Review, Frank
Rhoden relates that Mr. E.G. Taylor, a Hastings chess
club member who actually witnessed the game, told him
that after Tarasch made his 38th move, "The
spectators began to drift away, thinking there was
nothing more to see." But now comes one of the most
dramatic surprises ever seen on a chessboard. With
hindsight, several annotators have advocated that
black play 38.. Rxb3, which sacrifices the exchange
for a pawn. Black would then have his Bishop
available for the defense and obtain two dangerous
connected passed pawns. But 38...Rxb3 is no better
than the move played.}
38..Rxb3 39.Nxb3, Bxb3 40. Rg2, Kh8 41. g5xf6, g7xf6 42.
Ne5 $1, Nxe5 43.dxe5 c2 (43..Rxe5 44. Qh6
{ threatening mate at both g7 and f8 wins.}) 44. e6
{and black is finished. If then} 44.. Qc3 45. Qh7
{These variations were given by Horowitz and Reinfeld
in their revision of R.N. Cole's book, Battles Royal of the Chessboard.
39. Rg2 {Threatening to win a piece with 40. gxf6,
Nxf6 41. Nxf6+}
40. gxf6 gxf6 {If 40...Nxf6 41. Ne5 followed by
42. Ng6+}
41. Nxb3 Rxb3
42. Nh6 Rg7 {White threatened 43. Rg8#, and if
42...Re8, 43. Nf7#}
43. Rxg7 Kxg7
44. Qg3 $3 {The move that turns the
tables....If 44..Kf8 45. Qg8+ 46. Qxb3} Kxh6
45. Kh1 $1 {Threatening 46. Rg1 and 47. Qh4#. The only
was for Black to prevent this is to play as he does.}
46. Rg1 Qxf5
47. Qh4+ Qh5
48. Qf4+ Qg5
49. Rxg5 fxg5
50. Qd6+ Kh5
51. Qxd7 c2
({A blunder, but Black was lost. If}
51..Rb1+ ( 51..Kg6 52. Qe6+ ) 52. Kg2, Rb2+ 53. Kg3, Kg6 54. Qc6+ Kf5 55. d5 {wins
52. Qxh7#

[Event "McDonnell - La Bourdonnais (Kingâs Gambit) "]
[Site "London"]
[Date "1834.??.??"]
[White "McDonnell"]
[Black "La Bourdonnais"]
[Result "1-0"]

1. e4 e5
2. f4 exf4
3. Nf3 g5
4. Bc4 g4
5. Nc3 {McDonnell's invention. Usual here is 5. 0-0,
the Muzio Gambit,
which sacrifices a piece for a fierce attack on
black's undeveloped kingside. 5. Ne5 the Salvio
Gambit was also played in the nineteenth century.
Eventually it was found that 5. Qh4+ 6. Kf1 Nc6 $1
refutes it, as complex analysis would show.} 5...
6. O-O {6. Qxf3, as also played by McDonnell, would
lead to more independent positions. Note it is as if
White played a Muzio and followed it up with Nc3
instead of the usual Qxf3}
6... c6? {Black plans to
place his Queen on Qf6, so that after White plays Qxf3
he cannot at once follow this with Qxf4 because Black
will exchange queens. With the text move Black keeps
White's knight out of Nd5 where he may eventually
harass Black's Queen. However, if 6..
Qf3, Nd5?? then 7..Qd4+ and Qxc4 but in this wild
open position there is not time for such a move.}
7. Qxf3 Qf6
8. e5 {Itâs quite worth another pawn to open the
position further} 8...Qxe5
9. Bxf7 $1 { A finely conceived sacrifice}
10. d4 Qxd4+ {Perhaps better was 10...Qg7 at once.}
11. Be3 {The piquant point, Black can not play
11...Qxe3+? because after QxQ Blackâs Bishop Pawn is pinned and cannot recapture. Notice how all of Whiteâs moves gain time and development.}
12. Bxf4 {Black has two extra pieces, but he is far
behind in developement and his King is
very exposed}12...Nf6
13. Ne4 {White must strike while the iron is hot. The
text starts on attack against Blackâs
knight, which covers his King. Black cannot play
13...Nxe4 because 14. Be5 or Bh6
dis. + wins the Queen.} 13...Be7
14. Bg5 {Continuing the pressure against the Knight.}
14...Rg8 {inderectly menacing
Whiteâs King Knight Pawn}
15. Qh5+ {Planning a brilliant combination.} 15...Qg6
{Not 15...Kf8?? 16. Bh6.}
16. Nd6+ $1 {If now 16..Bxd6 17. Rxf6+ followed by 18.
Rxg6 notice that Black's Queen is
pinned, so he cannot play 17...Qxf6}
({This allows a very nice finish.
If} 16..Kg7? 17. Bh6+ $1 Qxh6 (17...Kh8 18.
Nf7+) 18. Qf7+ Kh8 19. Qxe7 {threatening Nf7+, wins})
(16. ..Kf8 {Black's only chance. Then, after}
17. Bh6+, Rg7 18. Bxg7+ Kxg7 19. Qe5 Bxd6 20.
Qxd6 {Black has three pieces
for a rook, but his lack of development still gives
white the advantage.})
17. Rae1+ Kxd6 ( 17...Kd5 18. c4 Kc5 19.
Be3 Kb4 20.Qc5 Ka4 21. b3#)
18. Bf4#

[Event "McDonnell - La Bourdonnais (20)"]
[Site "London"]
[Date "1834.??.??"]
[White "McDonnell"]
[Black "La Bourdonnais"]
[Result "1-0"]

1. e4 e5
2. f4 exf4
3. Bc4 Qh4+
4. Kf1 d6 {More usual and better is 4... g5 or 4...d5 5. bxd5 bd6}
5. d4 Bg4
6. Qd3 Nc6
7. Bxf7+ ? {A decidedly mistaken idea. With this
move and the queen manuevers whi+ follow, white wins
material, but removes his queen to the far side of
the board. This at a time when blackâs pieces are
aggressively placed, whereas white after the
disappearance of his king bishop will not have a
single piece developed! Such a move shows that in
1834 even the best players did not fully grasp the
principle of development.}
8. Qb3+ Kg6 {The king is very secure here}
9. Qxb7 Nxd4 $1 {A good exchange sacrifice.}
10. Qxa8 Nf6 {Developing, guarding his king
bishop, and preventing 11. qe8+}
11. Na3 {Unfortuneatly for white, he must develop the
knight to the side to guard his c2 pawn}
11...f3 {Breaking in to White's king position}
12. g3 Bh3+
13. Ke1 Qg4
14. Be3 {Developing and attacking black's queen knight}
14...d5 $1 {a well thought out winning move. Bb4+ winning queen is threatened}
15. Qxa7 Nc6
16. Qxc7 {If 16. Qa4 d4 17. bf4 (If 17. bd2 Qxe4+ and f7 wins or 17. Qxc6 dxe3 wins) 17...Bb4+ 18. c3 dxc3 wins}
17. Bd2 {If Bf4 Bb4+ 18. c3 (18. Kf2 Nxe4+ 18...dxc3 wins or 17. Qxc6 dxe3 and White's king is completely encircled)}
18. Kd1 f2
19. Nxh3 Qf3+ {and black won. Mate is forced after 20. Kc1 Qxh1+ or 20...f1=Q+.}

[Event "?"]
[White "Alekhine"]
[Black "Alexander"]
[Date "1936.??.??"]
[Result "1-0"]

{Queen's Indian Defense, 27 moves. Alekhine takes advantage of a slight error and defeats his opponent quickly with a series of sharp moves and pretty combinations. Alekhine was world champion from 1937-1946.}
1. d4 Nf6 {Preventing 2. e4}
2. c4 {Putting pressure on d5.}
2... e6 3. Nf3 Bb4+ 4. Nbd2 b6 {The Queen's Indian Defense. Black moves the bishop to b7 to put pressure on the center.}
5. g3 {The usual counter to the bishop on b7.}
5... Bb7 6. Bg2 0-0 {Continuing development.}
7. 0-0 Bxd2 {This is a questionable move since the bishop was more powerful than the knight. The key to White's attack in this game is the power of his dark-squared bishop.}
8. Qxd2 {With Black's dark-squared bishop gone, White plans to place a bishop on b2 exerting strong pressure along the diagonal.}
8... d6 {Black want to develop the knight on d7 rather than on c6 where it would block the bishop on b7 and the pawn on c7.}
9. b3 {The bishop is going to be well placed on b2.}
9... Nbd7 10. Bb2 Rb8 {Black wants the bishop to be protected so that after ... Ne4 the knight will not become pinned to the bishop after White moves his queen and knight. However, this is a passive place for the rook.}
11. Rad1 Ne4 {The knight is Black's best-placed piece.}
12. Qe3 {White would like to trade off the knight with 13. Nd2.}
12... f5 {Now Black can meet 13. Nd2 with Ndf6.}
13. d5 {This limits the scope of Black's bishop and increases the scope of White's queen bishop. If 13...e5 then 14. Nh4 Nec5 15. f4 threatening 16. fxe5 Nxe5 17. Nxf5. Black cannot win a piece with 15... exf4 16. Qxf4 g5 because of 17. Qd4 threatening 18. Qxg7#.}
13... exd5 14. cxd5 Ndf6 {Attacking the pawn on d5. It doesn't look like it can be defended.}
15. Nh4 {Black cannot capture the pawn on d5 safely. If 15... Bxd5 then 16. Bxf6 Qxf6 (or 16... Nxf6 17. Bxd5) 17. Rxd5. If 15... Nxd5 then 16. Rxd5 $1 Bxd5 17. Qd4 (Threatening Qxg7#.) 17... Qd7 18. Qxd5+ and Black's rook and pawn are no match for White's two bishops.}
15... Qd7 16. Bh3 {Pinning the pawn on f5 and therefore removing its ability to protect the knight on e4. If 16... Nxd5 then 17. Qxe4 fxe4 18. Bxd7 wins. If 16... Bxd5 then 17. Rxd5 Nxd5 18. Qxe4 fxe4 19. Bxd7 and although material is even, White has a winning positional advantage.}
16... g6 {Black has been forced to weaken his dark squares and thus enhance the effectiveness of White's bishop on b2.}
17. f3 {White chases away Black's best-placed piece and prepares for an eventual e4 breaking open the position.}
17... Nc5 18. Qg5 {Pinning the pawn on g6 and threatening to take the pawn on f5 with either the knight or the bishop. White also clears the way for moving a pawn to e4.}
18... Qg7 {Breaking the pin and bringing the queen over to help defend the king.}
19. b4 {Pushing back a defender of e4.}
19... Ncd7
20. e4 {Threatening the pawn on f5. If 20... fxe4 21. Bxd7 Qxd7 22. Bxf6 wins a piece.}
20... Nxe4 {This looks like a saving move. If 21. fxe4 then 21... Qxb2. If 21. Bxg2 Nxg5 22. Bxf8 Nxh3+ 23. Kg2 Rxf8 24. Kxh3 Nf6 25. Rfe1 Nxd5 and Black has a good position with a bishop and two pawns for a rook.}
21. Qc1 $1 {Both the Black queen and the knight on e4 are attacked.}
21... Nef6 {The only way to save the knight and the queen.}
22. Bxf5 $3 {If 22... gxf5 23. Nxf5 Black has only three places to move his queen, and they all lose: 23... Qf7 24. Nh6+ Kg7 25. Nxf7; 23... Qg6 24. Ne7+ Kg7 25. Nxg6; 23... Qh8 24. Nh6+ Kg7 25. Qg5#.}
22... Kh8 23. Be6 {White's position is overwhelming. He now threatens to advance his pawn to g4 and then to g5 attacking the pinned knight. }
23... Ba6 {A minor distraction.}
24. Rfe1 Ne5 {Attempting to break the pin on the a1-h8 diagonal.}
25. f4 {The diagonal will be unblocked.}
25... Nd3 {Forking the queen and rook.}
26. Rxd3 {White is happy to exchange a rook for a knight in this position.}
26... Bxd3 27. g4 {Black resigned because there is no way to stop 28. g5. A possible continuation is: 28... h6 29. g5 hxg5 30. fxg5 Kh7 31. Bxf6 Rxf6 32. gxf6 Qxf6 33. Ng2 and White is up a piece.}

[Event "?"]
[White "Anderssen"]
[Black "Kizeritzky"]
[Date "1851.??.??"]
[Result "1-0"]

{King's Gambit, 23 moves. In one of the most remarkable games ever, Andersson sacrifices a bishop, then two rooks, and finally his queen.}
1. e4 {This often leads to open games with tactical possibilities.}
1... e5 2. f4 {The King's Gambit. White sacrifices a pawn for control of the center square d4 and the possibility of his King's rook becoming active on the f file.}
2... exf4 3. Bc4 {This variation is called the Bishop's Gambit. White should not play 3. d4 because then 3... Qh4+ is good for Black since White would have to play 4. Ke2. A common move for White is 3. Nf3.}
3... Qh4+ {This looks threatening but actually is not the best move. Better are 3... d5 giving back the pawn and 3... Nf6.}
4. Kf1 {The king is more securely placed here than it appears, and White can gain an important tempo by attacking the Black queen with Nf3.}
4... b5 {A counter sacrifice to gain time and development. This move is not looked upon favorably nowadays.}
5. Bxb5 Nf6 {Developing and attacking the pawn on e4.}
6. Nf3 Qh6 {The queen would have been better placed on h5, but Black plans to move his knight to h5.}
7. d3 {Guarding the pawn and opening lines for the bishop.}
7... Nh5 {Threatening 8... Ng3+ 9. hxg3 Qxh1+.}
8. Nh4 {Stopping the threat and preparing to put the knight on f5 where it will be powerfully placed.}
8... Qg5 9. Nf5 c6 {If now 10. Ba4 then 10... d5 gives Black a satisfactory game.}
10. Rg1 $3 {A splendid piece sacrifice.}
10... cxb5 11. g4 {Black cannot play 11... fxg3 en passant because of 12. Bxg5.}
11... Nf6 12. h4 Qg6 13. h5 Qg5
14. Qf3 {Threatening 15. Bxf4 trapping the queen. The bottled up position of the Black queen is amusing.}
14... Ng8 {To save the queen.}
15. Bxf4 Qf6 16. Nc3 {White now has an enormous lead in development, definitely worth more than a piece.}
16... Bc5 17. Nd5 {The beginning of an extraordinary run of brilliant sacrifices.}
17... Qxb2 {Threatening 18... Qxa1+.}
18. Bd6 $3 {If now 18... Qxa1+ then 19. Ke2 Bxg1 20. e5 $3 reaches the same position as in the game.}
18... Bxg1 19. e5 $3 {Cutting the queen off from the defense of the kingside. White now threatens 20. Nxg7+ Kd8 21.Bc7#.}
19... Qxa1+ 20. Ke2 {White still threatens 21. Nxg7+ Kd8 22. Bc7#. If 20... f6 then 21. Nxg7+ Kf7 22. Nxf6 Kxg7 23. Ne8+ Kh6 24. Qf4#. Black's best may be 20... Ba6 but White still maintains a winning advantage after 21. Nc7+ Kd8 22. Nxa6 (Threatening 23. Bc7+ Ke8 24. Ne6+ Ke7 25. Qxf7#) 22... Bb6 23. Qxa8 Qc3 24. Qxb8+ Qc8 25. Qxc8+ Kxc8 26. Bf8 h6 27. Nd6+ Kd8 28. Nxf7+ Ke8 29. Nxh8.}
20... Na6 {To prevent 21. Nxg7+ Kd8 22. Bc7#}
21. Nxg7+ Kd8 22. Qf6+ $1 {Forcing the knight to remove its protection from e7.}
22... Nxf6 23. Be7#

[Event "?"]
[White "Botvinnik"]
[Black "Capablanca"]
[Date "1938.??.??"]
[Result "1-0"]

{Nimzo-Indian, 41 moves. Botvinnik gives up a pawn for a king-side attack in which he sacrifices a bishop and then a knight as part of a brilliant combination. Capablance was world champion from 1921-1927; Botvinnik from 1948-1957, 1958-1960, and 1961-1963.}
1. d4 {This move often leads to positional struggles.}
1... Nf6 {Prevents 2. e4 and keeps open numerous options.}
2. c4 {The normal follow-up to 1. d4. White puts pressure on d5.}
2... e6 {Black frees the bishop on f8 and leaves open the possibility of a future ...d5.}
3. Nc3 {White is threatening 4. e4.}
3... Bb4 {Stopping 4. e4. This variation is called the Nimzo-Indian.}
4. e3 {This is one of many possible moves for White including 4. Qc2, 4. Nf3, 4. a3, and 4. Qb3}
4... d5 {Black does not want to give up the center to White.}
5. a3 Bxc3+ 6. bxc3 c5 {Trying to put pressure on White's center which is, however, pretty solidly defended.}
7. cxd5 exd5 8. Bd3 {This is White's active bishop. The other bishop is blocked by its own pawns.}
8... 0-0 9. Ne2 {Better than 9. Nf3 that allows the annoying pin 9... Bg4.}
9... b6 {Black plans to move the bishop to a6 and trade it for White's powerful bishop.}
10. 0-0 Ba6 11. Bxa6 Nxa6
12. Bb2 {The bishop has little mobility.}
12... Qd7 {Black plans ... Qa4 if White moves his queen away.}
13. a4 Rfe8 14. Qd3 c4 {This move takes the pressure off the center, which is usually bad. Here, Black calculates that he will have a strong queenside attack after moving his knight to b3 via b8, c6, and a5.}
15. Qc2 {White's next several moves are in preparation for e4.}
15... Nb8 {The first step toward b3.}
16. Rae1 Nc6 17. Ng3 Na5
18. f3 {The preparations for e4 are complete.}
18... Nb3 {Cutting off the defense of the pawn on a4.}
19. e4 {Will White's attack be worth the loss of a pawn?}
19... Qxa4 20. e5 Nd7 {Black now plans 21... Nbc5 22. Qe2 (Not 22. dxc5 Qxc2) Nd3.}
21. Qf2 {White would like to play 22. Nf5 with threats against the Black king and the possibility of playing Nd6.}
21... g6 22. f4 {Intending f5 opening lines against the Black king.}
22... f5 23. exf6 Nxf6 24. f5 {White has a strong attack.}
24... Rxe1 {Black decides to trade off as much material as possible.}
25. Rxe1 Re8 26. Re6 $1 {Forcing Black to give White a powerful passed pawn.}
26... Rxe6 ( 26... Kg7 27.Rxf6 Kxf6 28. fxg6+ Kxg6 29. Qf5+ Kg7 30. Nh5+ Kh6 31. g4 {Threatening Qf6#} Qc6 27. Ba3 Qg6 28. Bf8+ Rxf8 29 Qxf8+ Kg5 30. Qf4+ Kh4 31. Qg3+ Kg5 32. h4+ Kh6 33. Qf4+ Qg5 34. Qxg5#) 27. fxe6 Kg7 28. Qf4 {Threatening 29. Nf5+ gxf5 30. Qb5+ Kf8 31. Qxf6+}
28... Qe8 29. Qe5 {Defending the pawn and preparing to bring the long-lost bishop into play with 30. Ba3.}
29... Qe7 {To prevent Ba3.}
30. Ba3 $3 Qxa3 {Black cannot afford to let the bishop into play.}
31. Nh5+ $1 gxh5 {All White is left to attack with is his queen and his advanced e pawn, but that is enough.}
32. Qg5+ {Forcing the king away from the knight.}
32... Kf8 33. Qxf6+ Kg8 34. e7 {White threatens e8=queen and Qf8#.}
34... Qc1+ {Black's only hope is to try for a perpetual check.}
35. Kf2 Qc2+ 36. Kg3 Qd3+ 37. Kh4 Qe4+ 38. Kxh5 Qe2+
39. Kh4 Qe4+ 40. g4 Qe1+ 41. Kh5

[Event "?"]
[White "Capablanca"]
[Black "Spielmann"]
[Date "1927.??.??"]
[Result "1-0"]

{Queens' Gambit Declined, 26 moves. Capablanca gets an advantage out of the opening. Just when Spielmann finds a move that appears to hold everything together, Capablanca makes a brilliant piece sacrifice. Capablanca was world champion from 1921-1927.}
1. d4 {A move that usually leads to closed positions.}
1... d5
2. Nf3
2... e6
3. c4 {The opening is now a Queen's Gambit Declined by transposition of moves. This position could have arisen from 1. d4 d5 2. c4 e6 3. Nf3.}
3... Nd7 {Not 3... Nc6 blocking the c pawn.}
4. Nc3
4... Ngf6 {Defending the pawn on d5.}
5. Bg5 {Pinning the knight and therefore threatening the pawn on d5. The usual move for Black here is 5... Be7 breaking the pin.}
5... Bb4 {This is an aggressive way to protect the pawn.}
6. cxd5
6... exd5
7. Qa4
7... Bxc3+
8. bxc3
8... 0-0
9. e3 {White is developing normally.}
9... c5 {Putting some presure on White's center.}
10. Bd3
10... c4 {Although this move gains space on the queenside, it takes pressure off the center. White now strives to play e4.}
11. Bc2
11... Qe7
12. 0-0 {The rook will go to e1 to support the pawn move to e4.}
12... a6
13. Rfe1 {White now threatens 14. e4 dxe4 15. Bxe4 with an overwhelming position. The pin of the knight prevents 15... Nxe4.}
13... Qe6 {Breaking the pin. Note that White has developed all his pieces except the rook on a1; Black hasn't developed either rook or the queen's bishop.}
14. Nd2 {The point is to play 15. e4.}
14... b5
15. Qa5
15... Ne4 {Stopping 16. e4. White now turns his attention to Black's weak pawns.}
16. Nxe4
16... dxe4 {Black has successfully prevented e4, but at a cost. White is ahead in development and Black is left with weak queenside pawns that White can use his advantave in development to attack.}
17. a4 {Threatening 18. axb5 and Black cannot play 18... axb5 because of 19. Qxa8. If Black plays 17... bxa4 then his pawn formation is shattered. }
17... Qd5 {This looks like a saving move since it gains time by attacking the bishop. After 18. Bf4 Black can play 18... Bb7 guarding the rook on a8 so that 19. axb5 could be answered with 19... axb5.}
18. axb5 $3 {When you are ahead in development, you must strike before your opponent has time to mobilize. Black cannot play 18... axb5 because of 19. Qxa1.}
18... Qxg5
19. Bxe4 {If now 19... Ra7 then 20. b6 $1 Qxa5 21. bxa7 $1 Bb7 22. Rxa5 Bxe4 23. Rxa6 with a winning position.}
19... Rb8
20. bxa6 {White has enormous compensation for the knight including a threatening passed pawn on a6, a lead in development, and very actively placed pieces. Black cannot hold on for long. If 21... Qxa5 then 22. Rxa5 and the threat of 23. a7 cannot be stopped.}
20... Rb5
21. Qc7 {The threat is 22. a7 and 23 a8=Q.}
21... Nb6
22. a7
22... Bh3 {The pawn on g2 cannot capture the bishop because it is pinned. This move indirectly reduces the bishop on e4's support of the a pawn's advance since the biship is needed to prevent ... Qxg2#.}
23. Reb1
23... Rxb1+
24. Rxb1 {If 24... Na4 then 25. Rg8 wins immediately.}
24... f5
25. Bf3
25... f4 {Desperation.}
26. exf4 {Black resigned. If 26... Qxf4 27. Qxf4 Rxf4 28. Rxb6.}

[Event "?"]
[White "Fischer"]
[Black "Sherwin"]
[Date "1957.??.??"]
[Result "1-0"]

{Sicilian Defense, 33 moves. The 14 year old Bobby Fischer capitalizes on a few inaccuracies and builds up a strong attack. Sherwin finds several ingenious moves but fails to avert defeat against Fischer's exact play. Fischer was world champion from 1972-1975.}
1. e4 {Fischer almost always began with this move.}
1... c5 {The Sicilian Defense.}
2. Nf3 {Developing.}
2... e6
3. d3 {More usual is 3. d4. White's move leads to a closed game called the King's Indian Reversed.}
3... Nc6 {A good developing move.}
4. g3 {To place the bishop on g2 where it will reinforce the pawn on e4 and put pressure on d5.}
4... Nf6
5. Bg2
5... Be7
6. 0-0
6... 0-0
7. Nbd2 {This is better than Nc3 which would prevent White from moving a pawn to c3.}
7... Rb8 {This allows the b pawn to move forward without fear that White's bishop on g2 will threaten the rook. Black is planning a queenside counterattack to White's coming kingside attack.}
8. Re1 {Placing the rook in the center and leaving f1 available for the knight which often, from there, goes to e3 or even to g4 via h2.}
8... d6 {This is more passive than the more usual d5.}
9. c3 {Preparing to play d4.}
9... b6 {9... b5 would have given Black better chances.}
10. d4 {White now has a strong positon in the center.}
10... Qc7? {In a few moves White will have threats based on playing Bf4 and attacking both the queen and the rook.}
11. e5 $1 {The center pawns are on the move. Black's best is now 11... dxe5 12. dxe5 Nd7 although Black's position would be cramped and his pieces would be in each other's way.}
11... Nd5
12. exd6
12... Bxd6
13. Ne4 {If 13... Be7 then 14. c4 Nf6 15. Bf4. If 13... cxd4 then 14. Nxd6 Qxd6 15. c4 Nf6 16. Bf4.}
13... c4 {This is the only move to avoid the loss of material. However, it takes the pressure off of White's center leaving him free to conduct a kingside attack. Black has no prospects for a counterattack in the center or for a queenside attack.}
14. Nxd6
14... Qxd6
15. Ng5 {Beginning the kingside attack. Although it weakens his kingside, it turns out that Black should have played 15... h6 here.}
15... Nce7 {Bringing the knight to the defense of the kingside.}
16. Qc2 {Threatening Qxh7#.}
16... Ng6
17. h4 {Threatening h5 and the knight can't move because of the mate threat.}
17... Nf6
18. Nxh7 $1 {A stunning surprise. If 18... Kxh7 then 19. Bf4 winning the rook on b8.}
18... Nxh7
19. h5 {To drive away the knight and then play Bf4.}
19... Nh4 $1 {Black finds an ingenious way to counterattack.}
20. Bf4
20... Qd8 {If now 21. Bxb8? then 21... Nxg2 22. Kxg2 Bb7+ 23. Kg1 Qxb8 and Black would have a bishop and knight for a rook and would be in a strong position.}
21. gxh4
21... Rb7 $1 {Helping in the defense and tempting White to play 22. Bxb7 so that after 22... Bxb7 White would have no piece to defend his white squares. Black's queen and bishop would be very dangerous on the a8-h1 diagonal.}
22. h6 $1 {Continuing the attack on the king. The best defense is now 22... g6 but White would still have a far superior position.}
22... Qxh4?
23. hxg7
23... Kxg7
24. Re4 {Threatening 25. Be5+ winning the queen.}
24... Qh5
25. Re3 {Threatening 26. Rh3 Qg6 (Or 26... Qa5 27. Qxh7+) 27. Rg3 pinning and winning the queen.}
25... f5 {Blocking the White queen's attack on h7.}
26. Rh3
26... Qe8
27. Be5+ {If 25... Kg8 26. Rg3+ Kf7 27. Rg7#. 25... Kg6 loses to 26. Qd2.}
27... Nf6
28. Qd2 {Threatening 29. Qh6+ Kg8 30. Qh8+ Kf7 31. Qxf6+ Kg8 32. Rh8#.}
28... Kf7
29. Qg5 {If 29... Ke7 then 30. Rh7+ Rf7 31. Qxf6+}
29... Qe7
30. Bxf6
31. Rh7+
31... Ke8
32. Qxf6 {If 32... Rxf6 then 33. Bxb7 Bxb7 34. Rxb7 and White is a rook ahead.}
32... Rxh7
33. Bc6+ {and Black resigned. His position is clearly hopeless. If 33... Bd7 then 34. Qxe6+}

[Event "?"]
[White "Gibaud"]
[Black "Lazard"]
[Date "1924.??.??"]
[Result "0-1"]

{Queens Pawn, 4 moves. One of the shortest master-level games ever played. In a seemingly tame position, Lazard shocks Gibaud with a move that wins his queen.}
1. d4 {Controlling a portion of the center and putting pressure on the queenside.}
1... Nf6 {Developing a piece and preventing 2. e4.}
2. Nd2 {Planning 3. e4}
2... e5 $1 {This frees Black's game.}
3. dxe5
3... Ng4 {If 4. Ngf3 then 4... Nc6 will win back the pawn. Not 4. f4 Ne3 trapping the queen.}
4. h3?? {An innocent looking move. White expects 4... Nxe5 5. Ngf3}
4... Ne3 $3 {White resigns. If 5. fxe3 then 5. ...Qh4+ 6. g3 Qxg3#}

[Event "?"]
[White "Gruenfeld"]
[Black "Alekhine"]
[Date "1923"]
[Result "0-1"]

{Queen's Gambit Declined, 34 moves. Alekhine plays a solid defense with Black and gradually improves his position until he obtains a winning advantage -- he exploits it brilliantly. This is the kind of game that makes chess look easy. Alekhine was world champion from 1937-1946.}
1. d4
1... Nf6 {To prevent 2. e4}
2. c4 {Putting pressure on the center. It is important not to block the c pawn in queenside openings.}
2... e6 {Preparing to develop the bishop and keeping open the possibility of ... d5}
3. Nf3
3... d5 {Also playable is 3... b6 leading to the Queen's Indian Defense. The current position is a Queen's Gambit Declined by transpostion of moves. It could have occurred by 1. d4 d5 2. c4 e6 3. Nf3 Nf6}
4. Nc3 {Developing and putting pressure on the center.}
4... Be7
5. Bg5
5... Nbd7 {It is important not to block the c pawn by 5... Nc6.}
6. e3 {A normal developing move.}
6... 0-0
7. Rc1 {White anticipates that the c file will be open.}
7... c6 {Solidifying the defense of the center.}
8. Qc2
8. a6 {Black will soon play ... dxc5 followed by ...b5 and ... c5 and eventually ...Bb7.}
9. a3 {So that after the bishop recaptures on c4 it can retreat to a2.}
9... h6
10. Bh4
10... Re8 {Black is waiting until White develops his bishop before playing ... dxc4}
11. Bd3
11... dxc4
12. Bxc4
12... b5
13. Ba2 {From here the bishop can move to b1 supporting the queen in the attack on the king.}
13... c5
14. Rd1 {Putting pressure on the soon-to-be opened d file. However, it is usually not a good idea to move a piece twice in the opening and neglect the development of other pieces.}
14... cxd4
15. Nxd4
15... Qb6
16. Bb1
16... Bb7 $1 {It looks as if White could now play 17. Ndxb5 axb5 18. Rxd7 Nxd7 19. Qh7+ Kf8 20. Qh8#. However, Black would answer 17. Ndxb5 with 17... Qc6 18. Nd4 Qxg2 with a very good game.}
18. 0-0
18... Rac8 {Pinning the knight. Notice how Black has moved each of his pieces only once, but always to the right square.}
19. Qd2 {Unpinning the knight.}
19... Ne5 {The knight is headed for c4}
20. Bxf6 {Now that Black cannot recapture with the knight, White plays for threats on h7.}
20... Bxf6
21. Qc2 {Threatening 22. Qh7+ but moving the queen onto the same file as the Black rook.}
21... g6
22. Qe2
22... Nc4 {Threatening 23... Nxa6 24. bxa6 Rxc3. Black's pieces are beautifully placed. The bishop on b7 is very powerful, as is the rook on c8. The knight on c4 puts tremendous pressure on White's position.}
22. Be4 {So that if 22... Nxa3 then 23. Qf3 Bxe4 24. Nxe4 Bxd4 25. Rxd4 and White is threatening both 24. bxa3 as well as 24. Nf6+ forking the king and rook.}
22... Bg7 {The bishop is safer here; the threat of ... Nxa3 is renewed.}
23. Bxb7
23... Qxb7
24. Rc1 {Guarding the knight to prevent 24... Nxa3.}
24... e5 $1 {The pawn will advance to e4 and support the knight when it moves to d3 via e5.}
25. Nb3
25... e4 {The pawn on e4 severely cramps White's game. Black is now threatening 26... Nxa3 27. bxa3 Rxc3 28. Rxc3 Bxc3.}
26. Nd4
26... Red8 {Moving the rook to an open file and threatening 27... Bxd4}
27. Rfd1
27... Ne5 {On the way to the great outpost d3.}
28. Na2? {White hopes to reduce the pressure by exchanging rooks. Unfortunately, this move takes the knight too far from the action. Moreover, the fact that the knight is unprotected is the basis of Black's winning 32nd move.}
28... Nd3
29. Rxc8
29... Qxc8
30. f3 {White attempts to undermine the knight.}
30... Rxd4 $1 {If 31. exd4 Bxd4+ 32. Kf1 (Not 32.Kh1 Nf2+ 33. Kg1 Nxd1+) 32... Nf4 33. Qxe4 Qc4+ 34. Ke1 Nxg2+ 35. Kd2 Be3+ 36. Qxe3 Nxe3 and Black wins.}
31. fxe4 {Black has two pieces attacked.}
31... Nf4 $1
32. exf4 {White's position looks secure.}
32... Qc4 $1 {Attacking the queen and the knight. The only way for White to avoid losing a piece is to take the queen.}
33. Qxc4
33... Rxd1+ {If 34. Kf2 then 34... bxc4 and Black is ahead by a rook.}
34. Qf1 {White wins back the rook after 34... Rxf1ch}
34... Bd4+ {and White resigns. After 35. Kh1 Rxf1#}

[Event "?"]
[White "Karpov"]
[Black "Hartinov"]
[Date "1988"]
[Result "1-0"]

{Queen's Gambit Declined, 42 moves. Karpov demonstrates his excellent technique. On move four Karpov embarks on a plan to weaken Black's queenside; after 35 moves the plan bears fruit and a queenside pawn is won. Karpov was world champion from 1975-1985.}
1. c4 {This is called the English Opening. It usually leads to a postional struggle.}
1... e6 {One of many possible replies. Black prepares for ... d5.}
2. Nc3
2... d5
3. d4 {The game has now transposed into a Queen's Gambit Declined. This position could have been arrived at by 1. d4 d5 2. c4 e6 3. Nc3}
3... Nf6
4. cxd5 {The exchange variation. White's goal is now to move up his two queenside pawns and exchange them leaving Black with a weak pawn.}
4... exd5
5. Bg5 {Pinning the knight and threatening 6. Bxf6 and Black would have to recapture with the pawn because 6... Qxf6 loses to 7. Nxd5.}
5... Be7 {Breaking the pin.}
6. e3
6... Nbd7 {It is important not to play ... Nc6 blocking the c pawn.}
7. Nf3 {White is continuing normal development.}
7... c6
8. Bd3
8... 0-0
9. Qc2 {White will soon begin attacking on the queenside.}
9... Re8 {Black will move the knight on d7 to f8 so that the bishop on c8 can be developed.}
10. 0-0
10... Nf8
11. h3
11... Be6
12. Rfc1 {Moving the rook to the half-open file. White plans to place his other rook on b1 to support the pawn advance.}
12... N6d7 {Black hopes to simplify by exchanging bishops.}
13. Bf4 {White prefers not to exchange.}
13... Nb6 {So that Black can play 14... Bd6 and the queen will protect the bishop.}
14. Rab1 {Preparing for an eventual b4}
14... Bd6
15. Ne2
15... Ng6
16. Bxd6
16... Qxd6
17. a4 {White does not play b4 at once because Black can answer with Nc5 with an equal game.}
17... Rac8
18. Qc5 {White would have a positional advantage after 18... Qxc5 19. dxc5 Nd7 (Not 19... Nxa4 20. b3 trapping the knight) 20. b4}
18... Qb8
19. Qa3 {Now the a pawn must be protected.}
19... a6
20. Rc3 {White is going to double rooks on the c file.}
20... Qc7
21. Rbc1
21... Ra8
22. Nd2 {The knight will eventually make its way to c5.}
22... a5 {So that if 23. b4 axb4 24. Qxb4 Rxa4}
23. Rb1
23... Nc8 {White's pieces are much more coordinated than Black's.}
24. b4 {If White can trade this pawn for Black's pawn on a4 and then trade his a pawn for Black's pawn on b7, Black will be left with a weak pawn on c6. This is the plan initiated on move four of the game!}
24... axb4 25. Qxb4
25... Nd6
26. Nb3 {Supports the advance of the a pawn and prepares for an eventual Nc5.}
26... Bc8
27. a5 {According to plan.}
27... Ne7 {Black intends 28... Bf5}
28. Ng3
28... g6
29. Rbc1
29... h5 {Black is beginning a kingside counterattack. In retrospect, it would have been better to simplify the position with 29... Nef5 since the kingside attack never materializes and the h pawn becomes a target.}
30. Ra1 {Preparing for a6.}
30... h4
31. Nf1
31... Bf5 {Black has gained some space on the kingside.}
32. Be2 {The bishop is needed to support the advance of the pawn to a6.}
32... Ne4 {A nicely posted piece.}
33. Nc5 {Threatening 34. Qxb7}
33... Nxc5
34. Qxc5 {If Black moves his knight on e7 then White can play Qxd5 because the c pawn is pinned.}
34... Be6 {Protecting the pawn.}
35. Nd2 {So that every piece participates in the finale.}
35... Nf5
36. Nf3
36... Qd8
37. a6 {At long last.}
37... bxa6
38. Rxa6
38... Rxa6
39. Bxa6 {If 39... Bd7 40. Bd3 Ng7 41. Ne5 Black is tied up in knots.}
39... Qa8? {This is a blunder, probably caused by time pressure. }
40. Qxc6
40... Qxc6
41. Rxc6
41... Ra8
42. Bd3 {and Black resigned. There is no way to prevent the threat of 43. Bxf5 and 44. Nxh4 winning a second pawn. If 42... Ra1+ 43. Kh2 Ra2 then White simply plays 44. Rc2 and the pawn on h4 cannot be saved}

[Event "?"]
[White "Kasparov"]
[Black "Short"]
[Date "1993"]
[Result "1-0"]

{Ruy Lopez, 36 Moves. The seventh game in the 1993 World Championship Match. A tense struggle comes to an end when Short grabs a pawn and pays dearly for it. Kasparov has been world champion since 1985.}
1. e4 {Controlling the center and preparing to develop the bishop on f1.}
1... e5
2. Nf3 {Developing a piece and attacking the pawn on e5.}
2. Nc6 {Developing and protecting the pawn.}
3. Bb5 {The Ruy Lopez. The defender of the pawn is attacked.}
3... a6 {This gives Black the freedom to play b5 when needed. White cannot now win a pawn with 4. Bxc6 d7xc6 5. Nxe5 because of 5... Qd4 attacking the knight and e pawn.}
4. Ba4
4... Nf6 {Attacking the pawn on e4.}
5. 0-0 {5... Nxe5 is a playable move, but Black should not strive to hold on to the pawn. After 6. d4 b5 7. Bb3 Black should play 7... d5 giving back the pawn rather than 7... exd4 which is refuted by 8. Re1. }
5... Be7 {With the e file blocked, Nxe4 is now a threat.}
6. Re1 {Guards the pawn. Now White threatens to win a pawn with 7. Bxc6 d7xc6 8. Nxe5.}
6... b5
7. Bb3
7... 0-0 {More usual is 7... d6. Black is planning to play the Marshall gambit if White plays 8. c3. The main variation is: 8. c3 d5 9. exd5 Nxd5 10. Nxe5 Nxe5 11. Rxe5 c6 and Black has continuing pressure for the pawn.}
8. a4 {White prefers to keep the initiative on his side. The threat is 9. axb5 and Black cannot play 9... axb5 becaue of 10. Rxa8.}
8... Bb7 {Protecting the rook.}
9. d3
9... d6
10. Nbd2
10... Nd7 {The knight is moving to c5.}
11. c3 {Supporting the center and providing an escape hole for the bishop.}
11... Nc5 {Attacking the pawn on d3.}
12. axb5 {If 12... Nxb3 then 13. Qxb3 axb5 14. Rxa8 Bxa8 15. Qxb5 winning a pawn.}
12... axb5
13. Rxa8
13... Bxa8
14. Bc2 {Although the bishop looks passive, WhIte will play b4 to chase away the knight and then return the bishop to b3. White is threatening d4 giving him a strong center.}
14... Bf6 {Prevents d4.}
15. b4
15... Ne6
16. Nf1 {The knight is headed for d5 or f5 via e3.}
16... Bb7
17. Ne3
17... g6 {Black does not want the knight on f5!}
18. Bb3 {The bishop is active again.}
18... Bg7
19. h4 {White plans to weaken Black's kingside by trading off kingside pawns. This move would be weak if Black could open up the center with pawn exchanges, but he cannot.}
19... Bc8
20. h5 {White hopes to remove Black's protective shield of pawns. If Black plays 20... gxh5 then White could continue with 21. g3 threatening 22. Nh4 23. Qxh5, 24. Nf5 26. Kg2 and 27. Rh1 Black would have counterplay and the position would be very complicated.}
20... Kh8
21. Nd5
21... g5 {Although this avoids exchanging pawns, it leaves Black with weak squares, especially f5.}
22. Ne3 {White wastes no time moving his knight to f5.}
22... Nf4 {Attacking the pawn on h5.}
23. g3 {White is not phased by the attack on the pawn.}
23... Nxh5
24. Nf5
24... Bxf5 {The knight was too threatening to leave on f5.}
25. exf5 {If Black tries to protect the pawn on g5 with 25... h6 then 26. Nxg5 hxg5 27. Qxh5ch}
25... Qd7
26. Bxg5 {If Black answers with 26... Qxf5 then 27 Bd5 is very strong. The knight on c6 would be forced to move out of play and White would have an unstoppable attack against the Black king after 28. Kg2 and 29. Rh1.}
26... h6 {Either 27... Bf6 or 27... Nf6 may have been better.}
27. Nh4 {If 27... hxg5 then 28. Qxh5+ Kg8 29. Qxg5 winning easily.}27... Nf6
28. Bxf6
28... Bxf6
29. Qh5
29... Kh7
30. Ng2 {The knight is going to g4 via e3. }
30... Ne7 {Bringing the knight to g8 to defend the pawn on h6.}
31. Ne3
31... Ng8
32. d4
32... exd4
33. cxd4 {White is offering a pawn. Black should play either 33... Kg7 or 33... Bg5 instead of taking it.}
33... Bxd4? {Black's position will now deteriorate quickly.}
34. Ng4 {White is threatening 35. f6 and 36. Bc2ch. If after 35. f6 Black plays 35... Bxf6 then 36. Qxh6+ Nxh6 37. Nxf6+ Kg7 38. Nxd7. If Black plays 34... Bf6 to prevent f6 then 35. Qxh6+ Nxh6 36. Nxf6+ Kg7 37. Nxd7}
34... Kg7
35. Nxh6 $1 {If 35... Nxh6 then 36. Qg5+ Kh7 37. Bc2 threatening 38. f6ch. If 37... f6 then 38. Qg6+ Kh8 Qxh6ch. If 37... Bf6 then 38. Qxf6 Re8 39. Re6 Ng8 (not 39... fxe6 40. fxe6+ Kg8 41. fxd7) 40. Qh4+ Kg7 41. f6+ Kf8 42. Rxe8+ Qxe8 (If 42... Kxe8 43. Qh8) 43. Qh8 Qe1+ 44. Kg2 Qd2 45. Qg7+ Ke8 46. Qxg8ch.}
35... Bf6
36. Bxf7 {and Black resigned. If 36... Rxf7 then 37. Qg6+ Kf8 38. Qxg8#. If 36... Nxh6 then 37. Qg6+ Kh8 38. Qxh6#}

[Event "?"]
[Date "1834.??.??"]
[White "La Bourdonnais"]
[Black "McDonnell"]
[Result "0-1"]

{Queen's Gambit Accepted, 36 moves. Still one of the most exciting chess games ever played. McDonnell sacrifices a queen for two minor pieces and a very strong position. This is an excellent example of a positional queen sacrifice. Queen sacrifices are rarely made unless they win immediately.}
1. d4
1... d5
2. c4 {The Queen's Gambit.}
2... dxc4 {Accepted. Black does not expect to hold on to the extra pawn.}
3. e4 {Trying to control the center and planning 4. Bxc4. Nowadays 3. Nf6 is preferred to prevent Black's next move.}
3... e5 {After 4. dxe5 Qxd1+ 5. Kxd1 Be6 the position is even.}
4. d5
4... f5 {Attacking the base of the pawn chain. A side pawn is usually less important than a center pawn.}
5. Nc3 {If now 5... fxe4? then 6. Qh5+ and after either 6... g6 or 6... Ke7 White plays Qxe5+ with a winning position.}
5... Nf6
6. Bxc4 {regaining the gambit pawn.}
6... Bc5 {The bishop is more aggressively placed here than on d6.}
7. Nf3 {Developing the knight and threatening the e pawn.}
7... Qe7 {guarding the pawn.}
8. Bg5 {This is eventually shown to be a mistake, but it is not a blunder; it is a deliberate pawn sacrifice.}
8... Bxf2+ {If 9. Kxf2 then 9... fxe4 10. Bxf6 (Not 10. Nxe4 Nxe4+) 10... Qc5+ 11. Ke1 exf3 12. Bb5+ c6 13. Qxf3 (Not 13. Bxg7 Qe3+) gxf6 wins back the piece with a good game for Black.}
9. Kf1
9... Bb6
10. Qe2 {Although White has lost the right to castle, all of his pieces are active except his shut-in rook on h1. White is threatening to win his pawn back by 11. exf5 Bxf5 Nxe5. If Black plays 10... fxe4 then after 11. Nxe4 the threat of 12. Nxf6 breaking up Black's kingside is difficult to cope with. }
10... f4
11. Rd1 {Bringing the rook to an active central position.}
11... Bg4 {Pinning White's knight.}
12. d6 {To make room for the knight on d5.}
12... cxd6
13. Nd5 {If 13... Qd8 then 14. Nxf4 exf4 15. e5 winning back the knight with a crushing attack.}
13... Nxd5 $3 {A striking conception. Black's two minor pieces will be more powerful than White's queen.}
14. Bxe7
14... Ne3+
15. Ke1 {In retrospect, it might have been better to give back the queen with 15. Qxe3 although Black would have ended up a pawn ahead.}
15... Kxe7
16. Qd3 {Breaking the pin on the knight and threatening 17. Qxd6.}
16... Rd8 {Guarding the d pawn. Black has no desire to trade his wonderful knight on e3 for the rook on d1.}
17. Rd2 {Guards the pawn on g2.}
17... Nc6
18. b3
18... Ba5 {Pinning the rook.}
19. a3
19... Rac8 {Bringing his only undeveloped piece into action. If 20. b4 then 20... Nxb4 21. axb4 Bxb4 22. Ba2 Bxf3 23. gxf3 Rc2 threatening 24... Rxd2 and 24... Rxa2.}
20. Rg1
20... b5 {Black now gains an advantage in material as well as position.}
21. Bxb5
21... Bxf3 {If 22. Bxc6 then 22... Rxc6 23. gxf3 Rc1+ 24. Kf2 Bxd2 25. Qxd2 Rc2 wins.}
22. gxf3
22... Nd4 {If 23. Kf2 then 23... Bxd2 and White cannot play 24. Qxd2 because of 24... Rc2 winning the queen.}
23. Bc4 {Attempting to block the entrance of the Black rook.}
23... Nxf3+
24. Kf2
24... Nxd2
25. Rxg7+ {Black must play carefully here.}
25... Kf6
26. Rf7+
26... Kg6
27. Rb7
27... Ndxc4
28. bxc4
28... Rxc4
29. Qb1 {Threatening Qg1+ with a mating attack.}
29... Bb6 {Threatening to move the knight on e3 with discovered check. If 30. Qg1+ then 31... Ng4+ winning the queen.}
30. Kf3 {White is again threatening Qg1+.}
30... Rc3 $1 {Now if 31. Qg1+ then 31... Ng4+ 32. Kxg4 Bxg1.}
31. Qa2 {Threatening Qf7+.}
31... Nc4+ {Cutting off the queen.}
32. Kg4
32... Rg8 {Threatening 33... Kh6+ (with the rook) 34. Kh4 Bd8+ and Mate next move.}
33. Rxb6
33... axb6
34. Kh4
34... Kf6
35. Qe2
35... Rg6
36. Qh5
36... Ne3
37. Qxh7
37... Ng2+
38. Kh5
38... Rh3# {White saw this coming and resigned after Black's 36th move}

[Event "?"]
[White "Lasker"]
[Black "Bauer"]
[Date "1889.??.??"]
[Result "1-0"]

{Bird's Opening, 33 moves. A brilliant attacking game featuring the first known use of the two-bishop sacrifice. This is one of the most famous games in chess history. Lasker was world champion from 1894-1921.}
1. f4 {Bird's opening. White plays for control of e5 and a kingside attack.}
1... d5
2. e3
2... Nf6
3. b3 {White plans to position his bishops on b2 and d3.}
3... e6 {To develop the bishop and castle.}
4. Bb2
4... Be7
5. Bd3 {It is unusual to block the d pawn. The move works out well in this position, however.}
5... b6 {Black would probably have been better off castling followed by ... c5 and ... Nc6}
6. Nc3 {The knight is not particularly effective here, but it will move to e2, g3 and eventually h5.}
6... Bb7
7. Nf3 {Attacking the key square e5.}
7... Nbd7
8. 0-0
8... 0-0
9. Ne2 {Repositioning the knight and unleashing the bishop on b2.}
9... c5
10. Ng3
10... Qc7 {Planning 12... c4 chasing the bishop from its powerful position.}
11. Ne5
11... Nxe5
12. Bxe5
12... Qc6 {Indirectly threatening the square g2 and once again threatening c4. }
13. Qe2 {Preventing 13... c4. If 13... Rac8 then 14. Bb5 trapping the queen.}
13... a6 {Preventing 14. Bb5. }
14. Nh5 {Threatening 15. Nxf6+ Bxf6 16. Bxf6 gxf6 17. Bxh7+ Kxh7 18. Qh5+ Kg7 19. Qg4+ Kh2 20. Rf3 and 21. Rh3 Mate cannot be prevented.}
14... Nxh5 {Black undoubtedly expected 15. Qxh5 f5 where White has a powerful attack, but the game still has a lot of play in it.}
15. Bxh7+ $3 {The first of two bishop sacrifices.}
15... Kxh7
16. Qxh5+
16... Kg8
17. Bxg7 $1 {Threatening 18. Qh8#. If 17... f6 then 18. Qg6 (Threatening 19. Bxf6#.) 18... Rf7 19. Bh6+ Kh8 20. Qxf7.}
19... Kxg7
20. Qg4+ {If 20... Kf6 then 21. Qg5#.}
20... Kh7
21. Rf3 {Threatening 22. Rh3#. Black must now give up his queen to prevent it.}
21... e5
22. Rh3+
22... Qh6
23. Rxh6+
23... Kxh6 {Two bishops and a rook are worth more than a queen.}
24. Qd7 {Attacking both bishops at the same time.}
24... Bf6
25. Qxb7 {If 25... exf4 then 26. Rf1 Kg7 27. Rxf4}
25... Kg7
26. Rf1 {Calling up the reserves.}
26... Rab8
27. Qd7
27... Rfd8 {Attacking the queen and giving the king an escape square on f8.}
28. Qg4+
28... Kf8
29. fxe5 {With the rook bearing down on the king, Black has no defense. If 29... Bxe5 then 30. Qf5 threatening both 31. Qxf7# and 31. Qxe5}
29... Bg7
30. e6 {White begins attacking the pinned pawn.}
30... Rb7
31. Qg6 {Threatening 32. Rxf7+}
31... f6
32. Rxf6+
32... Bxf6
33. Qxf6+
33... Ke8 {To protect the rook on d8.}
34. Qh8+ {It is the rook on b7 that White is after.}
34... Ke7
35. Qg7+ {Black resigned since if 35... Kxe6 then 36. Qxb7 wins easily for White}

[Event "?"]
[White "Lehman"]
[Black "Smyslov"]
[Date "1966.??.??"]
[Result "0-1"]

{After refusing Lehmann's gambit on move 2, Smyslov accepts a pawn sacrifice on move 15 and conducts the defense and endgame masterfully. Smyslov was world champion from 1957-1958.}
1. d4
1... f5 {The Dutch Defense. Black accepts a somewhat weakened pawn position for kingside attacking chances.}
2. e4 {The Staunton Gambit. White gives up a pawn for strong attacking possibilities.}
2... fxe4
3. Nc3
3... Nf6
4. f3 {The main idea of the gambit: If 4... exf3 5. Nxf3 White has strong pressure on the center and a lead in development while Black has weaknesses due to the missing f pawn. Nonetheless, it is sound to accept the gambit.}
4... Nc6 {Black prefers to give back the pawn to playing a defensive game.}
5. fxe4 {White is controlling the center. Black must find a way to contest it.}
5... e5
6. dxe5
6... Nxe5
7. Nf3
7... Bd6 {It is very unusual to block the d pawn in this way. However, it is the only active move in this position. }
8. Bg5 {Pinning the knight and planning Nd5.}
8... h6
9. Bh4
9... 0-0
10. Nd5
10... Nxf3+
11. gxf3 {White hopes to be able to use the open g file to attack the Black king.}
11... Be7 {Breaking the pin and threatening 12... Nxd5 13. Bxe7 Nxe7 winning a piece.}
12. Nxe7+
12... Qxe7
13. Qd2 {If Black plays passively, White will gain a huge advantage by castling queenside and using the open g file for an attack.}
13... d5 $1 {Taking advantage of the fact that White hasn't yet castled and that the e pawn is pinned.}
14. 0-0-0 {White was faced with the choice of a passive defense and sacrificing a pawn for an attack. He chose the latter.}
14... dxe4
15. fxe4
15... Qxe4
16. Bxf6 {If now 16... Qxh1 then 17. Bc4+ wins the queen.}
16... Rxf6
17. Bg2 {White gains time attacking Black's exposed queen. }
17... Qe8 {To prevent 18. Qd8+}
18. Rhe1 {White controls most of the board now.}
18... Qf8 {Black now threatens 19... Bg4 trapping White's rook on d1 and freeing his own rook on a8 to defend the back rank.}
19. Qd5+
19... Kh8
20. Qd8 {Threatening Re8 winning the queen. If 20... Qxd8 21. Rxd8+ Kh2 22. Ree8 winning the bishop.}
20... Bg4 $1 {At last Black's queen rook and queen bishop are in the game.}
21. Qxf8+
21... Raf8
22. Rd4 {White is threatening 23. Rxg4 and 23. Bxb7}
22... Bc8 {Holding onto the material. Once the queen rook is developed, c8 is not such a bad place for the bishop.}
23. Re7 {Rooks on the seventh rank are very powerful.}
23... c6 {To save the pawn.}
24. h4
24... Kg8 $1 {Black can sense the end game is near and is bringing his king into the action!}
25. h5 {White wouldn't mind posting a bishop on g6. However, this pawn is going to be weak and attacked by the Black king.}
25... R6f7 {Black must retain control of his own second rank.}
26. Rxf7
26... Kxf7 {To bring the king closer to the pawn on h5.}
27. Kd2
27... Kf6
28. Ke3
28... Kg5
29. Bf3 {White is now on the defensive.}
29... Bf5 {Threatening 30... Bxc2}
30. c3
30... Re8+ {White's most active piece is his rook. Black plans to play 31... Re7 and 32... Rd7 exchanging rooks. With the more active pieces and extra pawn, Black would win easily.}
31. Kf2
31... Re7
32. b4 {Desperately seeking counterplay.}
32... Rd7
33. Rc4 {This leads to the loss of the a pawn. But White cannot afford to trade rooks.}
33... Be6
34. Re4
34... Bxa2
35. Re5+
35... Kf4
36. Ra5 {Attacking the bishop and the pawn.}
36... Rd2+
37. Ke1
37... Rh2
38. Be2
38... Be6 {If 39. Rxa7 then 39... Ke3 40. Bf1 (Not 40. Bd1 Rh1#.) 40... Rh1 followed by 41. Bc4 winning the bishop.}
39. Bf1
39... Ra2 {White resigned. White has no hope in the ending after 40. Rxa2 Bxa2 If 40. Rc5 then 40... Bd5 41. Bc4 Ra1+ 42. Kd2 b6 trapping the rook}

[Event "?"]
[White "Morphy"]
[Black "Anderssen"]
[Date "1858.??.??"]
[Result "1-0"]

{Sicilian Defense, 17 moves. This was the 8th game of a match won by Morphy between these two great players. Anderssen was too aggressive in the opening and was soundly defeated by a brilliant combination.}
1. e4 {A move leading more often to tactical rather than positional play. }
1... c5 {The Sicilian Defense. }
2. d4 {Morphy preferred this move order to 2. Nf3 and 3. d4}
2... cxd4 {Otherwise White has control of the center.}
3. Nf3 {Black can protect the pawn with 3... e5 since 4. Nxe5 would lose the knight to 4... Qa5+. However, White gets definite compensation after 4. c3 dxc3 5. Nxc3. Morphy's opponents rarely cared to risk this line.}
3... Nc6
4. Nxd4
4... e6 {Because this move can give Black a backwards d pawn, it was condemned by the analysts for a long time. Only in the middle of the 20th century was it realized that Black's piece activity provides reasonable compensation for the backwards pawn.}
5. Nb5 {Threatening 6. Nd6+ Bxd6 7. Qxd6 with an advantage.}
5... d6
6. Bf4 {Attacking the pawn again.}
6... e5 {Now the d pawn is backwards: it will have trouble advancing to d5.}
7. Be3
7... f5 {A premature move.}
8. N1c3 $1 {White calmly develops and refutes Black's last move. There is no way for Black to stop the knight from going to d5 where it can then give a fatal check on c7. If 8... Be6 then 9. exf5 Bxf5 10. Nd5. Or if 8... a6 then 9. Nd5 axb5 10. Bb6 Qd7 11. Nc7+ and 12. Nxa8. If 8... Nf6 then 9. Bg5 a6 10. Bxf6 gxf6 11. Qh5+ is good for White. }
8... f4
9. Nd5
9... fxe3
10. Nbc7+
10... Kf7 {White could now play 11. Nxa8 exf2+ 12. Kxf2 Qh4+ 13. g3 Qxe4 14. Bg2 with an advantage in material.}
11. Qf3+ {Instead White prefers a line with incredible complications. Morphy loved to take risks, and was leading in the match 5.5 to 1.5 (draws count .5).}
11... Nf6
12. Bc4 {Threatening 13. Nxf6 checking with the bishop. Black appears to have no defense}
12... Nd4 $1 {A clever resource, attacking the queen and the pawn on c2.}
13. Nxf6+ {If now 13... Ke7 14. Nfd5+ Kd7 15. Qf7+ and 16. Nxa8 wins easily.}
13... d5 $1
14. Bxd5+ {Here Black should play 14... Ke7 leading to an extremely complicated position after either 15. Ng8+ or 15. Qh5.}
14... Kg6? {This loses at once to a fine combination.}
15. Qh5+
15... Kxf6 {White cannot play 16. Ne8+ because of 16... Qxe8 17. Qxe8 Bb4+ 18. c3 Rxe8. After the obvious attacking move 16. Qf7+ Black plays 16... Kg5 and it is not easy to get at the Black king.}
16. fxe3 $1 {Now the rook on h1 can come into the game. If 16... Qxc7 17. Rf1+ Ke7 18. Rf7+ Kd6 19. Rxc7.}
16... Nxc2+
17. Ke2 {and Black resigned. If 17... Nxa1 then 18. Ne8+ Ke7 19. Qf7#. If 17... Qxc7 then 18. Rhf1+ Kd7 19. Rf7+ Kd8 20. Rxc7 Kxc7 21. Rc1}

[Event "?"]
[White "Morphy"]
[Black "Baucher"]
[Date "1858.??.??"]
[Result "1-0"]

{Philidor's defense, 29 moves. Paul Morphy, the chess prodigy from New Orleans, takes control of the center and posts a knight deep in Black's territory before beginining an unstoppable attack on the king. Morphy played this game blindfolded. He was told his opponent's moves but was not allowed to see the board.}
1. e4 {Controlling the center and preparing to develop the bishop now on f1 eventually.}
1... e5 {Following suit.}
2. Nf3 {Developing the knight and attacking the pawn on e5.}
2... d6 {Philidor's defense. Black will have to contend with a cramped position.}
3. d4 {White now has an advantage in the center.}
3... exd4 {White's pawn on e4 controls more space than Black's pawn on d6.}
4. Qxd4 {The queen is well-placed here. White has two pieces developed to Black's none.}
4... Nc6 {Developing a piece and attacking White's queen.}
5. Bb5 {Developing a piece and pinning the knight to the king.}
5... Bd7 {Now Black threatens to take the queen.}
6. Bxc6 {So that the queen can remain in a dominating position.}
6... Bxc6
7. Bg5 {Threatening the queen.}
7... f6 {This weakens Black's position. White will eventually post a knight at e6.}
8. Bh4
8... Nh6 {Not a good place for the knight but Ne7 blocks the bishop.}
9. Nc3 {A natural developing move.}
9... Be7 {Black's position is cramped.}
10. O-O {Getting the king out of the center and developing the king's rook.}
10... O-O {Black's king is not safe in the center but it is not safe on the kingside either.}
11. Qc4+
11... Kh8
12. Nd4 {The knight is very well placed in this central square. It now threatens Ne6 forking the rook and queen.}
12... Qd7
13. Rad1 {Another developing move that reinforces White's hold on the center.}
13... Rf7 {Black can think of nothing better to do than wait. Better was 13... Nf7 followed by Nd8 to defend the weak square on e6.}
14. f4 {White is preparing to control e6.}
14... a5
15. f5 {Planning to move the knight to e6.}
15... Rf8
16. Ne6 {A knight on the sixth rank is like a tooth in the throat.}
16... Rg8
17. a4 {White prevents even the slightest queenside counterplay by Black.}
17... Ng4 {Threatening Ne3 attacking both rooks and the queen.}
18. Qe2 {The threat is easily parried.}
18... Ne5 {This centrally-posted knight is Black's most active piece.}
19. Bg3 {So White decides to trade a bishop for it.}
19... Qc8 {So after 20. Bxe5 Black can recapture with the pawn on d6 without allowing 21. Rxd7.}
20. Bxe5
20... dxe5 {White has a dominating position.}
21. Rf3 {The rook is on its way to h3 where it will support the attack on the king. }
21... Bd7 {If 21... Be8 then 22. Rh3 g6 23. Qg4 gxf5 24. Rxh7+ Kxh7 25. Qh3+ Kg6 26. exf5+ Kf7 27. Qh7+ Rg7 28. Qxg7# is a possible continuation discovered by the great player Steinitz.}
22. Rh3 {Threatening 23. Rxh7 Kxh7 24. Qh5#.}
22... h6
23. Qd2 {Threatening 24. Rxh6 gxh6 25. Qxh6# and 24. Qxd7 at the same time.}
23... Kh7
24. Qxd7 {White is now ahead by a bishop.}
24... Bd6
25. Rxh6+ $1
25... Kxh6
26. Rd3 {Threatening 27. Rh3#.}
26... Kh5
27. Qf7+
27... Kg4
28. Qg6+
28... Kh4
29. Rh3# 1-0

[Event "?"]
[White "Morphy"]
[Black "Duke of Brunswick"]
[Date "1858.??.??"]
[Result "1-0"]

{Philidor's Defense, 18 moves. The Duke of Brunswick plays a poor opening and allows Morphy to obtain a lead in development. Morphy makes the most of this advantage and wins quickly. The game ends with a beautiful queen sacrifice.}
1. e4
1... e5
2. Nf3 {Developing and attacking the pawn.}
2... d6 {Philidor's Defense. Black usually ends up with a cramped position. More usual is 2... Nc6}
3. d4 {Taking possession of the center and threatening the pawn on e5 again.}
3... Bg4? {Indirectly protecting the pawn. However, Black will be forced to trade this powerful bishop for the knight and give White a lead in development.}
4. dxe5 {If 4... dxe5 then 5. Qxd8+ Kxd8 6. Nxe5 wins a pawn.}
4... Bxf3
5. Qxf3
5... dxe5
6. Bc4 {Threatening 7. Qxf7#. Black's best here is 6... Qe7 although since Qe7 blocks the bishop on f8, White would have a huge positional advantage.}
6... Nf6 {This looks like a logical move; however, it quickly leads to a losing position.}
7. Qb3 $1 {Threatening 8. Bxf7+}
7... Qe7 {White could win a rook for a knight with 8. Bxf7+ Qxf7 9. Qxb7. An immediate 8. Qxb7 does not win the rook because of 8... Qb4+ exchanging queens.}
8. Nc3 {White decides that simple development is even stronger than 8. Bxf7+. White's superior development combined with Black's awkwardly placed pieces gives White an overwhelming positional advantage.}
8... c6 {Protecting the pawn on b7 with the queen and guarding d5.}
9. Bg5 {A powerful pin.}
9... b5? {This loses at once, but Black wouldn't have been able to hold out much longer with any move.}
10. Nxb5 {Beginning an eloquent combination.}
10... cxb5
11. Bxb5+ {If 11... Kd8 then 12. Bxf6 Qxf6 13. Qd5+ Qd6 14. Qxa8 wins. }
11... Nbd7
12. 0-0-0 {Threatening 13. Bxf6 gxf6 14. Bxd7+. Notice how all White's pieces are developed and working together.}
12... Rd8
13. Rxd7 $1 {The end is near.}
13... Rxd7
14. Rd1 {The pinned rook is doomed. White threatens 15. Bxd7+ and 15... Nxd7 could not be played because the knight is pinned.}
15... Qe6 {This unpins the knight. White could win material now with 16. Bxf6, but, instead, plays a combination that puts this game into the history books.}
16. Bxd7+
16... Nd7 {Is everything protected?}
17. Qb8+ $3 {Everything but the king.}
17... Nxb8
18. Rd8#

[Event "?"]
[White "Napoleon"]
[Black "Bertrand"]
[Date "1820.??.??"]
[Result "1-0"]

{Scotch Game, 18 moves. The great general demonstrates he can carry out a relentless attack on the chessboard as well as on the battlefield.}
1. e4 {A move that can lead to tactical complications.}
1... e5
2. Nf3 {Developing and attacking the pawn on e5.}
2... Nc6 {Defending the pawn.}
3. d4 {This is known as the Scotch Game.}
3... Nxd4? {Better is exd4.}
4. Nxd4
4... exd4
5. Bc4 {Better is Qxd4 and the queen would dominate the center. If Black then tries 5... c5, he would have a hole on d5 and a backwards d pawn.}
5... Bc5 {Guarding the pawn.}
6. c3 {After 6...dxc3 7. Nxc3 White has a lead in development as compensation for his pawn.}
6... Qe7? {Black should either take the pawn or develop his knight.}
7. 0-0 $1 {If Black plays 7... Qxe4 then 8. Re1 pins and wins the queen.}
7... Qe5? {Black should pay more attention to development.}
8. f4 {White is giving up his rook for an attack.}
9. Kh1 9... cxb2
10. Bxf7+ $1 {If 10... Kxf7 then 11. fxe5+ followed by 12. Bxb2.}
10... Kd8
11. fxe5
11... bxa1=Q
12. Bxg8 $1 {If 12... Rxg8 then 13. Qb3 Rf8 (If 13... Re8 14. Bb2 winning the queen.) 14. Rxf8+ Bxf8 15. Qf7 Bc5 16. Bg5+ Be7 17 Qf8#. Alternatively, if Black had played 12... Qxe5 then 13. Rf5 Qxe4 14. Bg5+ Ke8 (Not 14... Be7 15. Rf8#.) 15. Bf7+ Kf8 16. Bg6+ Kg8 17. Rf8+ Bxf8 18. Bxe4.}
12... Be7 {To prevent 13. Bg5+.}
13. Qb3 {Threatening 14. Bb2 trapping the queen. Black should try 13... Qxe5 leading to unclear complications.}
13... a5?
14. Rf8+ $1
14... Bxf8
15. Bg5+
15... Be7
16. Bxe7+
17. Qf7+
17... Kd8
18. Qf8# 1-0

[Event "?"]
[White "Petrosian"]
[Black "Estrin"]
[Date "1968.??.??"]
[Result "1-0"]

{English Opening, 26 moves. Petrosian, known for his subtle positional maneuvering shows in this game that he is also a master of the attack. Petrosian begins preparing for a queenside attack and then changes gears and sets his sites on the Black king. Petrosian was world champion from 1963-1969.}
1. c4 {The English Opening is known for leading to subtle positional struggles. As will be seen, this game is an exception.}
1... e5 {Staking a claim to the center.}
2. g3 {Planning to place the bishop on the diagonal.}
2... Nc6
3. Bg2
3... d6
4. Nc3
4... Be6 {By unprotecting the pawn on b7, this move makes it easier for White to play b4. First, however, White must guard his c pawn.}
5. d3
5... g6
6. b4 {White's queenside attack is off to a fast start. The threat is b5 winnng the pawn on b7. After 6... Nxb4 7. Qb3 Black is in trouble.}
6... Qd7
7. b5
7... Nd8 {Guarding the pawn on b7.}
8. Nf3
8... Bg7
9. Ng5
9... e4? {Threatening 10... Bxc3+. However, the move opens up the game which is to White's advantage since he has the better placed pieces.}
10. Bb2
10... exd3
11. Qxd3
11... a6
12. h4 {White begins an attack on the king. }
12... axb5
13. cxb5
13... Ne7 {Black is preparing to castle; however, the kingside is almost as dangerous as the center.}
14. Qd2 {White guards the bishop on b2 so that he threatens Nce4 taking control of f6.}
14... 0-0
15. h5 {To remove the pawn protection from the king and open up the h file. The immediate threat is 16. hxg6 hxg6 17. Nh7 Re8 18. Ne4 and Black is in serious trouble.}
15... gxh5
16. Rxh5
16... Bf5 {Guarding the pawn on h7.}
17. Be4 {If 17... Bxe4 18. Ncxe4 h6 19. Nf6+ Bxf6 20. Bxf6 hxg5 21. Rh8#.}
17... Bg6
18. Rxh7 $1 {Black's bishop was his best defensive piece. Now the king cannot be defended.}
18... Bxh7
19. Bxh7+
19... Kh8
20. 0-0-0 {The threat is to bring the rook over to h1 and then move the bishop from h7. If 20... Bxc3 then 21. Qxc3+ f6 22. Qxf6+ Rxf6 23. Bxf6#.}
20... Ng8 {To be able to block the h file with Nh6.}
21. Rh1
21... Nh6
22. Nd5 {This move pins Black's bishop on g7 and therefore threatens 23. Rxh6}
22... f6 {Breaking the pin.}
23. Ne4 {If 23... Kxh7 then 24. Nexf6+ Rxf6 25. Nxf6+ Bxf6 26. Qxh6+ Kg8 27. Qxf6 and Black is defenseless.}
23... Rxa2
24. Rxh6
24... Bxh6
25. Qxh6 {Threatening 26. Qxf8+}
25... Qg7
26. Qh4 $1 {Black resigned. White threatens, among other things, 27. Bg6+ Kg8 27. Nexf6+ Rxf6 28. Nxf6+ Kf8 29. Nh7+ Kg8 30. Qxd8+ Qf8 31. Qxf8#. If Black tries 26... Qxh7 then 27. Bxf6+ Rxf6 (27... Kg8 28. Ne7+ wins the queen) 28. Qxf6+ Qg7 (28... Kg8 29. Ne7+) 29. Qxd8+ Qg8 (29... Kh7 30. Ndf6+ Kh6 31. Qe8 Qg6 32. Qh8+ Qh7 33. Qxh7#.) 30. Qxg8+ Kxg8 31. Nec3 with an easily won end game. }

[Event "?"]
[White "Pillsbury"]
[Black "Marco"]
[Date "1900.??.??"]
[Result "1-0"]

{Queen's Gambit Declined, 25 moves. One of the great attacking games of all time. Pillsbury, a great player from St. Louis, obtains a strong center and uses it as a basis for a merciless attack on the king.}
1. d4 {Controlling the center.}
1... d5
2. c4 {The queen's gambit. If Black plays 2... dxc4 White will eventually win back the pawn.}
2... e6 {The classical way to decline the gambit.}
3. Nc3 {Developing and putting pressure on d5.}
3... Nf6 {Developing and defending d5.}
4. Bg5 {Pinning the knight and putting more pressure on d5. Pillsbury was the first to demonstrate this is the best move.}
4... Be7 {Breaking the pin.}
5. e3
5... 0-0 {Getting the king out of the center.}
6. Nf3
6... b6 {The bishop will be developed on b7.}
7. Bd3 {White's pieces are actively placed.}
7... Bb7
8. cxd5 {White must not delay this move or Black will play dxc4 and his bishop will be very active. The recommended move now is 8... Nxd5 followed by 9. Bxe7 Qxe7 10. Nxd5 exd5. Black avoids 10... Bxd5 because of 11. e4 and White would control the center.}
8... exd5
9. Ne5 {Knights placed in center squares are very powerful.}
10. f4 {This provides strong support for the knight and opens the way for a kingside attack.}
10... c5 {It is correct to try to undermine the powerful knight by attacking its defenders.}
11. 0-0
11... c4? {A strategic error: Black relieves the tension in the center. Black's queenside attack is no match for White's kingside attack."}
12. Bc2
12. a6 {Preparing for b5.}
13. Qf3 {Bringing the queen into the attack.}
13... b5
14. Qh3 {Threatening 15. Nxd7 Qxd7 (if 15... Nxd7 then Qxh7#) 16. Bxh7+ Kh8 (If 16... Nxh7 17. Qxd7) 17. Bf5+ Kg8 18. Bxd7. If Black plays 14... h6 then 15. Bxh6 gxh6 16. Qxh6 Ne4 17. Rf3 Bf6 18. Rg3+ Nxg3 19. Qh7#.}
15. f5 {To exchange pawns and open the file for the rook on f1.}
15... b4 {Black counterattacks on the queenside.}
16. fxg6 $1 {If 16... bxc3 then 17. Bxf6 Nxf6 18. Rxf6 fxg6 (Not 18... Bxf6 19. Qxh7#) 19. Bxg6 $1 hxg6 20. Rxg6#. If instead 16... fxg6 then 17. Qe6+ Kh8 18. Nxd7 Nxd7 (If 18... Qxd7 then 19. Bxf6+ wins the queen) 19. Bxe7 wins a piece.}
16... hxg6 {If now 17. Ne2 then 17... Ne4 and Black has counterplay.}
17. Qh4 $1 {White keeps the pressure on.}
17... bxc3
18. Nxd7 {If 18... Nxd7 then 19. Bxe7 forking the queen and rook.}
18...Qxd7 {Hoping for 19. Bxf6 Bxf6 10. Qxf6 cxb2}
19. Rxf6 $1 {Wonderful move. If 19... Bxf6 then 20. Bxf6 cxb2 21. Qh8#.}
19...a5 {Black will bring his rook to a6 to help with the defense.}
20. Raf1 {Bringing the last inactive piece into the attack. The threat is 21. Bxg6 fxg6 22. Rxg6#.}
20...Ra6 {Has the rook arrived in time to save the day?}
21. Bxg6 $3 {Threatening Qh7#.}
21... fxg6
22. Rxf8+
22... Bxf8
23. Rxf8+
24. Qh8+
25. Qh7+ {and Black resigned. If 25... Kf8 then 26. Qxd7. If 25... Ke8 then 26. Qg8#. If 25... Ke6 then 26. Qxg6#}

[Event "?"]
[White "Polgar"]
[Black "Angelova"]
[Date "1988.??.??"]
[Result "1-0"]

{Sicilian Defense, 18 moves. Judit Polgar was only 12 years old when she played this game. Two years later became the youngest player ever to achieve the title of Grandmaster. She is probably the strongest woman player in history. In this game she quickly overwhelms her opponent.}
1. e4 {Polgar prefers this move which often leads to games with many tactical rather than postional possibilities.}
1... c5 {The Sicilian Defense.}
2. Nf3
2... Nc6
3. Bb5 {More usual here is 3. d4.}
3... g6 {Black plans to develop the bishop on g7.}
4. 0-0
4... Bg7
5. c3 {White plans to play 6. d4 with a strong center.}
5... e5 {To prevent 6. d4 5... d6 would have been better.}
6. d4 $1 {The pawn sacrifice is justified on the basis of White's lead in development and Black's weaknesses on the dark squares.}
6... cxd4
7. cxd4
7... Nxd4
8. Nxd4
8... exd4
9. e5 $1 {This move keeps Black from developing normally. If 9... Bxe5 then 10. Re1 f6 11. f4 would win the bishop.}
9... Ne7 {Black want to castle to safety as soon as possible.}
10. Bg5 {Putting pressure on the weak dark squares.}
10... 0-0
11. Qxd4 {White has her pawn back and is still in an excellent position.}
11... Nc6 {If now 12. Bxd8 then 12... Nxd4. Or, if 12. Bxc6 then 12... Qxg5. }
13. Qh4
13... Qb6 {Attacking the bishop and threatening 14... Bxe5. }
14. Nc3 $1 {White is delighted to sacrifice the pawn for the attack.}
14... Bxe5 {It is dangerous to grab a pawn when behind in development, but the pawn on e5 kept Black's queen bishop hemmed in. Besides, Black now threatens 15... Bxc3 16. bxc3 17. Qxb5}
15. Rae1 {White ignores Black's threats and continues with her development. If Black refuses the piece and plays 15... Bg7 the following is a possible continuation: 16. Bc4 d6 17. Nd5 Qxb2 18. Nf6+ Bxf6 19. Bxf6 (Threatening Qh6) 19... Qd2 20. Re3 h5 21. Qg5 Kh7 22. Bd3 Ne5 23. Qxh5+ Kg8 24. Qh8#.}
15... Bxc3 {The dark squares now belong to White.}
16. bxc3
16... Qxb5
17. Qh6 {Threatening 18. Bf6 and 19. Qg7#.}
17... Qf5
18. Qxf8+ $1
18... Kxf8
19. Bh6+
19... Kg8
20. Re8# {Black resigned after White's 18th move}

[Event "?"]
[White "Reshevsky"]
[Black "Traube"]
[Date "1920.??.??"]
[Result "1-0"]

{Bird's Opening, 17 moves. Reshevsky was only eight years old when he played this game in a simultaneous exhibition against 20 players. Traube made too many weakening pawn moves allowing Reshevsky to win with a nice combination.}
1. f4 {Bird's opening. }
1... e6 {Opeining lines for the bishop and controlling d5.}
2. Nf3
2... d5
3. g3 {The bishop is going to move to g2.}
3... Nf6 {A logical developing move. }
4. Bg2
4... Bd6 {This may be a little too aggressive. 4... Be7 is better.}
5. d4 {This makes it impossible for Black to play the freeing move ...e5. Moreover, e5 will be an excellent square for White's knight. The only disadvantage of this move is that with so many pawns on dark squares, the bishop on c1 will have little mobility.}
5... Nc6? {In positions with the d pawns advanced, the Black c pawn should be used to counterattack in the center. This move blocks the c pawn.}
6. Ne5 {A nicely posted piece. Black cannot play 6... Nxe5 because 7. dxe5 would fork the Black bishop and knight. If 7... Bb4+ then 8. c3 and Black still loses a piece.}
6... Ne7 {Now the c pawn is unblocked, but the knight is in the way of Black's queen and bishop.}
7. Be3
7... c6
8. a3 {White is planning a queenside attack.}
8... h6? {This move does nothing other than weaken the Black kingside.}
9. Nd2
9... Nd7
10. c4 {Attacking the center and making room for the queen to develop.}
10... b6? {Possibly thinking that he should prevent 11. c5, which was not a good move anyway. Black should castle.}
11. b4
11... f6? {Attempting to chase away the powerful knight. But Black has made too many weakening pawn moves already. }
12. Nxc6 $1 {A clever combination.}
12... Nxc6
13. cxd5 {If 13... Ne7 then 14. dxe6 and Black's rook and knight are both attacked.}
13... exd5
14. Bxd5 {Attacking the knight on c6 and pinning it to the rook.}
14... Bb7
15 Qc2 {This is the point of the combination. White attacks the knight on c6 and threatens 16. Qg6+ Kf8 17. Qf7#. Black's best is now 15... Qc7 16. Rc1 Rc8 17. Qg6+ Kd8 18. Qxg7 but White would still have a huge advantage.}
15... Rc8?
16. Qg6+
16... Kf8
17. Qf7#

[Event "?"]
[White "Schlecter"]
[Black "Przepiorka"]
[Date "1906.??.??"]
[Result "1-0"]

{Queen's Gambit Declined, 20 moves. Schlecter plays a superior opening and increases the pressure on Przepiorka. When Przepiorka initiates what looks like a simple pawn exchange, Schlecter places a rook on the seventh rank with devastating effect.}
1. d4 {Controls the center and is usually followed by 2. c4.}
1... d5
2. c4 {The Queen's Gambit. It is not a true gambit because White can eventually win back the pawn if Black plays 1... dxc4}
2... e6 {Declining the gambit and defending the center.}
3. Nc3 {Developing and putting pressure on the center.}
3... Nf6 {Defending the center.}
4. Nf3 {Developing.}
4... Nbd7
5. Bg5 {Pinning the knight to the queen.}
5... Be7 {Breaking the pin.}
6. e3 {Preparing to develop the bishop.}
6... b6 {It would have been better to castle first.}
7. cxd5 {If now 7... exd5 then 8. Bb5 Bb7 9. Ne5 (Threatening 10. Bxf6 Bxf6 11. Bxd7+) 0-0 10. Bc6 Bxc6 11.Nxc6 and White has a strong postion.}
7... Nxd5
8. Nxd5 {If 8... Bxg5 then 9. Nxc7+ Qxc7 10.Nxg5 and White is a pawn ahead.}
8... exd5
9. Bf4 {White now has the more active pieces and a chance to bring the rook into action on the c file.}
9... 0-0 {Getting the king out of the center and bringing the rook into play.}
10. Bd3 {The bishop has designs on the Black king.}
10... c5 {Attempting to put pressure on the queenside.}
11. 0-0 {Continuing development.}
11... Bb7
12. Rc1 {Rooks work best when not blocked by their own pawns.}
12... Re8
13. Ne5 {Centralizing the knight and putting pressure on the Black king.}
13... Nxe5
14. Bxe5
14... cxd4? {The losing move. It lets White's rook slip in.}
15. Rc7 {Black's days are numbered.}
15... Bc8 {White controls most of the board.}
16. Qh5 {Threatening 17. Qxh7+ Kf8 18. Qh8#.}
16... g6
17. Bxg6 $1 {If Black plays 17... hxg6 then 18. Qh8#.}
17... fxg6
18. Qh6 {Threatening Qg7#.}
18... Bf6
19. Qxh7+ {The White rook has made its presence known.}
19... Kf8
20. Qf7# {Black actually resigned after White's 17th move.}

[Event "?"]
[White "Spassky"]
[Black "Petrosian"]
[Date "1969.??.??"]
[Result "1-0"]

{Queen's Gambit Declined (by transposition), 30 moves. Spassky plays an excellent opening and emerges with an advantage. Petrosian, under pressure, allows Spassky to obtain a passed d pawn which decides the game. Petrosian was world champion from 1963-1969; Spassky from 1969-1972.}
1. c4 {The English opening. White takes possession of d5.}
1... Nf6 {Developing and attacking the center.}
2. Nc3 {A natural move.}
2... e6 {Preparing to play 3... d5. Also playable is 2... e5.}
3. Nf3
3... d5
4. d4 {This position can also arise from the Queen's gambit as follows: 1. d4 d5 2. c4 e6 3. Nc3 Nf6 4. Nf3.}
4... c5 {This variation is called the Semi-Tarrasch Defense.}
5. cxd5 {If 5... exd5 then Black will end up with an isolated queen pawn.}
5... Nxd5 {The usual next move for White when this game was played was 6. e3}
6. e4 $1 {Spassky will demonstrate the strength of the pawn center.}
6... Nxc3
7. bxc3
7... cxd4
8. cxd4 {White now occupies the center. The question is whether he will be able to use it to advantage or spend all his energy protecting it.}
8... Bb4+ {The side with less space should strive to exchange pieces.}
9. Bd2
9... Bxd2+
10. Qxd2
10... 0-0
11. Bc4 {A natural developing move.}
11... Nc6 {Developing and beginning to put pressure on White's center.}
12. 0-0
12... b6 {The bishop is better placed on b7 then d7.}
13. Rd1
13... Bb7
14. Rfe1 {Developing the last piece.}
14... Rc8 {Placing the rook on the open file.}
15. d5 $1 {If here 15... Na5 then Spassky planned 15. Bd3 exd5 16. e5 with a strong attack. White's bishop, knight, and queen all are ready for a kingside attack while Black's pieces are on the other wing.}
15... exd5
16. Bxd5 {White's pieces are now very active and it is difficult for Black to find a good defense.}
16... Na5? {The knight ends up being out of the game. Either 16... Qe7 or 16... Qc7 is better.}
17. Qf4 $1 {The queen is well placed here, exerting pressure on f7. The threat is Bxf7+ winning the queen.}
17... Qc7
18. Qf5 {threatening Ng5. If now 18... h6 then 19. Bxb7 Qxb7 20. Rd7 Rc7 21. Red1 and White's rook on the seventh rank gives him a distinct advantage.}
18... Bxd5 {This gives White a very strong passed d pawn.}
19. exd5
19... Qc2 {White would have a good game after 20. Qxc2 Rxc2 21. Re7 Rxa2 22. Rxa7}
20. Qf4 {White wants to force a win in the middle game rather than play out a long end game.}
20... Qxa2
21. d6 {Nimzovich often spoke of a past pawn's lust to expand.}
21... Rcd8 {Covering the pawn's queening square.}
22. d7
22... Qc4
23. Qf5 {White threatens 24. Ng5 as well as 24. Rc1 followd by 25. Rc7}
23... h6
24. Rdc1 {Now the rook will get to the seventh rank.}
24... Qa6
25. Rc7
25... b5 {Giving the queen a better chance to defend.}
26. Nd4
26... Qb6
27. Rc8 $1 {Black cannot play 27... Qxd4 because of 28. Rxd8 Rxd8 29. Re8+ Rxe8 30. dxe8=Q#. White threatens 28. Re8 Qxd4 29. Rxf8+ Rxf8 29. Rxf8 Kxf8 30. Qc5+ Qxc5 31. d8=Q#.}
27... Nb7 {Guarding the rook on d8.}
28. Nc6 $1
28... Nd6
29. Nxd8 $1 {A decisive finish.}
29... Nxf5
30. Nc6 {Black resigned since White is threatening both 31. Rxf8+ Kxf8 32. Re8# and 31. Rxf8+ Kxf8 32. d8=Q+ Qxd8 33. Nxd8}

[Event "?"]
[White "Spielmann"]
[Black "Hunlinger"]
[Date "1929.??.??"]
[Result "1-0"]

{Caro-Kann Defense, 28 moves. Spielmann increases the pressure until Hunlinger, in a precarious position, moves a piece away from his kingside. Spielmann then launches a decisive attack culminating in a queen sacrifice forcing checkmate.}
1. e4 {An opening that often leads to attacking rather than postional games.}
1... c6 {The Caro-Kann defense. It is somewhat passive but difficult to break through.}
2. d4 {Controlling the center with pawns.}
2... d5 {Contesting the center.}
3. Nc3 {Developing a piece and protecting the pawn on e4.}
3... dxe4 {Eliminating part of White's pawn center.}
4. Nxe4 {Recapturing.}
4... Nf6 {Developing and attacking the knight on e4.}
5. Ng3 {More usual is Nxf6.}
5... e6 {Opening lines for the bishop on f8. 5... h5 may have been better.}
6. Nf3 {A natural developing move.}
6... c5 {Planning to exchange White's remainnig center pawn. Perhaps it would have been more prudent to make a developing move.}
7. Bd3 {The best place for the bishop. 7. Be2 would be passive and 7. Bb5+ 7... Bd7 would lead to nothing. If Black tries 7... cxd4 8. Nxd4 Qxd4 then 9. Bb5+ wins the queen.}
7... Nc6 {Developing the knight and attacking the pawn on d4.}
8. dxc5 {Notice that the placement of White's bishop prevents a queen exchange.}
8... Bxc5 {Recapturing and developing the bishop at the same time.}
9. a3 {Preparing for an eventual b4 followd by Bb2 while preventing Nb4.}
9... 0-0 {Getting the king out of the center and bringing the rook into play.}
10. 0-0 {Following suit.}
10... b6 {To develop the bishop on b7.}
11. b4 {Attacking the bishop and preparing Bb2 where the bishop will exert strong pressure on the Black kingside.}
11... Be7
12. Bb2 {As planned.}
12... Qc7
13. b5 {Chasing away the knight so that White can play Ne5.}
13... Na5 {There is an old saying that a knight on the rim is dim. But where else can the knight go?}
14. Ne5 {A knight posted in the center is a very powerful piece. Bishops work best at a distance.}
14... Bb7
15. Ng4 {Threatening 16. Nxf6 Bxf6 17. Bxf6 gxf6 weakening Black's king position. If 15... Nxg4 then after 16. Qxg4 Black must weaken the king position with 16... g6.}
15... Qd8 {Protecting the knight to avoid doubled pawns.}
16. Ne3 {If now 16... Qc7 then 17. Nh5 Qd8 18. Nxg7 Kxg7 19. Qg4+ Kh8 20. Qh4 Kg8 21. Bxf6 Bxf6 22. Qxh7#.}
16... Nd5? {A mistake. The knight is needed on the kingside to defend the king.}
17. Qh5 {Threatening Qxh7#. If 17... h6 then 18. Bxg7 Kxg7 19. Ngf5+ exf5 20. Nxf5+ Kg8 21. Qxh6 Bf6 22. Ne7+ Qxe7 23. Qh7#}
17... g6 {Black is now weak on the dark squares.}
18. Ng4 {Now if 18... gxh5 then 19. Nh6# $1}
18... Bf6 {The best defense but it is not good enough.}
19. Nxf6+ {Now White has a dark-squared bishop and Black doesn't. It will be difficult for Black to defend the dark squares.}
19... Nxf6
20. Qh6 {White now has an excellent position.}
20... Rc8
21. Rad1 {White brings additional pieces into play before continuing the attack on the king. One threat is Bxg6 attacking the queen with the rook.}
21... Qe7
22. Rfe1 {The threat is 23. Nf5 gxf5 24. Qg5+ Kh8 25. Bxf6+ winning the queen.}
22... Ne8
23. Nf5 {If Black plays 23... gxf5 then 24 Bxf5 (threatening Qxh7#) 24... f6 25 Bxe6 + Kh8 26 Bxc8 wins. If 23... exf5 then 24 Rxe7.}
23... Qc5
24. Re5 {White already has a plan to maneuver the rook to h8.}
24... Bd5
25. Ne7+ $1 {The begining of a mating combination.}
25... Qxe7
26. Qxh7+ $3
26... Kxh7
27. Rh5+ $1 {The pawn cannot capture the rook because the pawn is pinned by the bishop.}
27... Kg8
28. Rh8# {Black resigned three moves ago beacuse he saw this ending coming.}

[Event "?"]
[White "Spielmann"]
[Black "Johner"]
[Date "1908.??.??"]
[Result "1-0"]

{Bishop's Opening, 30 moves. Spielmann's kingside attack was effectively countered by Johner's queenside attack. As Spielmann advanced a passed pawn, Johner opened up the center and caught Spielmann's king.}
1. e4 {An aggressive first move.}
1... e5
2. Bc4 {Bishop's Opening.}
2... Nf6 {If 3. Nc3 then 3... Nxe4 4. Nxe4 d5 and Black has an equal game or better.}
3. d3
3... Nc6 {Also good is 3... c6 preparing for ... d5.}
4. Nc3 {Developing and keeping open the option of 5. f4 which would be impossible after 4. Nf3.}
4... Bc5 {A good developing move. Also playable was 4... Bb4.}
5. f4
5... d6
6. f5 {This move cramps Black who cannot immediately play the natural rejoinder d5. White can proceed with a kingside attack while Black can pursue a queenside counterattack and strive to play ...d5. A major disadvantage of 6. f5 is that it takes the pressure off of Black's center.}
6... Nd4 {Black prepares his counterattack which consists of ...c6, ...b5, and ... a5.}
7. Bg5 {Pinning the knight and threatening to break up Black's kingside pawn formation with 8. Nd5 and 9. Nxf6+.}
7... c6 {Preparing for the queenside attack and preventing 8. Nd5. Black threatens 8... b5 9. Bb3 a5 (Threatening 9... a4 trapping the biship) 10. a3 Nxb3 and White has a weakend pawn position and has exchanged his powerful bishop for a knight.}
8. a3
8... b5
9. Ba2
9... Qb6 {Supporting the queenside attack and creating threats on the a7-g1 diagonal.}
10. Nf3
10... a5 {White would like to castle now but that would allow Black to move the knight on d4 checking with the bishop. For example, 11. 0-0 Nxf3+ 12. Kh1 Nxg5.}
11. Rf1 {Developing the rook for a kingside attack and protecting f2. If now 11... b4 then 12. Na4 and White can trade his knight for Black's powerful bishop.}
11... a4 {Now Black is prepared for ... b4.}
12. Nxd4
12... Bxd4 {White should now play 13. Bd2 to help defend the dark squares on the queenside.}13. Bxf6 {Instead he begins an attack on the kingside.}
13... gxf6
14. Qh5 {Threatening 15. Qxf7+. If Black now plays passively by defending the pawn with 14... Qc7 then his queenside attack would dissipate. If 14... Ra7 the rook would be tied to the defending the pawn of f7 and would be unable to support the queenside attack.}
14... Rf8 $1 {If 15. Qxh7 then 15... b4 16. axb4 Qxb4 threatening 17... Bxc3+, 17... Qxb2, as well as 17... a3 undermining the protection of the pinned knight.}
15. Nd1 {Passive but necessary.}
15... b4 $1 {If 16. axb4 a3 $1 17. Rb1 (Not 17. Bb3 axb2 18. Rxa8 b1=Q) 17... axb2 18. Bb3 Qxb4+. }
16. Rc1
16... bxa3
17. bxa3
17... Qc5 {Planning 18... Qxa3.}
18. c3
18... Qxa3
19. Rc2
19... Bb6
20. Qxh7
20... Qc5 {Bringing the queen back into play.}
21. Qg7 {Threatening 22. Qxf6.}
21... Ba6 {Threatening 22. Bxd3 forking the rooks.}
22. Rf3
22... Bd8 {Black wisely takes time out from the attack to defend his own kingside.}
23. h4 {The pawn is threatening to queen in four moves. Is there any way for Black to stop it.}
23... d5 $1 {The classic counter to play on a wing is to open the center. If 24. exd5 cxd5 Black will break open the position with ... e4. Was it mere luck that Black had this stroke available? No, it was inherent in the logic of the position. When White played 6. f5 it left Black with the latent possibility of d5.}
24. h5
24... dxe4
25. dxe4
25... Qg1+
26. Kd2
26... Be7 {Clearing the file for the rook.}
27. Rc1
27... Rd8+
28. Kc2
28... Qe1 {Threatening 29. Qd2+ 30. Kb1 Rg8+ 31. Kh1 Qxc1#.}
29. Rf2
29... Ba3 {The White king is surrounded.}
30. Qg4 {Returning to protect the king, but it is too late.}
30... Bd3#

[Event "?"]
[White "Steinitz"]
[Black "Mongredian"]
[Date "1862.??.??"]
[Result "1-0"]

{Center Counter, 29 moves. Steinitz gets an advantage is space after Mongredian played the opening very passively. Steinitz uses his advantage space to launch a kingside attack. He sacrifices a rook on move 16 and mates 12 moves later. Steinitz was world champion from 1886-1894.}
1. e4 {This usually leads to more open games than 1. d4.}
1. d5 {The Center Counter. Black frees his game quickly but loses a tempo because his queen is exposed.}
2. exd5 {Any other move would be very passive. The modern way to play this for Black is to play 2... Nf6 since after 3. c4 c6 4. dxc6 Nxc6 Black has a good game. Instead of 3. c4 White normally plays either 3. Nf3 or 3. d4.}
2... Qxd5
3. Nc3 {A natural move. White develops a knight and gains time attacking the queen.}
3... Qd8 {3... Qa5 is considered somewhat better.}
4. d4 {Taking possession of the central square d4 and opening lines for the bishop on c1.}
4... e6 {It is very passive to shut in the bishop this way. It would have been better to play 4... Bf5 or wait until White played Nf3 and play ... Bg4.}
5. Nf3 {Both sides now develop their pieces and castle.}
5... Nf6
6. Bd3
6... Be7
7. 0-0
7... 0-0
8. Be3 {Developing his last minor piece.}
8... b6 {The placement of the bishop on b7 is not a good idea in this position because White's pieces are well placed to exploit the holes this pawn move creates at a6 and c6.}
9. Ne5 {A strong central position for the knight. Its effect is manifested both by the pressure it exerts on Black's kingside and on Black's weak square c6.}
9... Bb7
10. f4 {Reinforcing the knight's position.}
10... Nbd7
11. Qe2 {Preparing Ba6 to exchange off Black's bishop on b7, the defender of his queenside holes. Black should now try 11... c5 attacking White's center, although White would still have a significant advantage.}
11... Nd5? {Removing an important defender from the kingside.}
12. Nxd5
12... exd5? {Very bad since Black's queen bishop is now shut in. Better was 12... Bxd5.}
13. Rf3 {Planning to bring the rook to h3 putting heavy pressure on the Black kingside. This move would not have been possible if Black had played 12... Bxd5. If Black now were to play 13... Nxe5 14. fxe5 f6 then 15. Rh3 g6 16. Rxh7 Kxh7 17. Qh5+ Kg8 18. Qxg6+ Kh8 19. Qh7#.}
13... f5 {To block the range of White's bishop.}
14. Rh3 {Threatening 15. Qh5 h6 16. Qg6 with many threats including 17. Rxh6, 17. Bxf5 and 17. Qe6+. If after 15. Qh5 Black were to play 15... Nf6 then 16. Qxf5 Bc8 (appearing to win the rook on h3) 17. Qxh7+ Nxh7 18. Bxh7+ Kh8 19. Ng6#.}
14... g6
15. g4
15... fxg4 {This loses immediately. 15... Nxe5 followed by 16... Bc8 would have held out a little longer.}
16. Rxh7 {What a move! If 16... Kxh7 then 17. Qxg4 (threatening Qxg6+) and Black can play either 17... Nf6 or 17... Rg8. After 17... Nf6 then 18. Qxg6+ Kh8 19. Qh6+ Kg8 20. Kh1 $1 and Black is helpless against the threat of 21. Rg1+. If 17... Rg8 then 18. Qh5+ Kg7 19. Qxg6+ Kf8 (19... Kh8 20. Qh7#) 20. Qf7#.}
16... Nxe5
17. fxe5
17... Kxh7
18. Qxg4 {threatening 19. Qxg6+ and 20. Qh7#.}
18... Rg8
19. Qh5+
19... Kg7
20. Qh6+
20... Kf7
21. Qh7+ {If 21... Rg7 then 22. Bxg6+ Kf8 (or 22... Ke6 23. Qh3#) 23. Qh8+ Rg8 24. Bh6#.}
21... Ke6
22. Qh3+ {Bringing the king back into the line of fire.}
22... Kf7
23. Rf1+ {If 23... Kg7 then 24. Qh6#. All White's pieces are now participating in the attack.}
23... Ke8
24. Qe6 {Threatening the rook on g8.}
24... Rg7
25. Bg5 {If now 25... Bc8 then 26. Qc6+ Bd2 (If 26... Qd2 then 27. Qxa8) 27. Qxg6+ Rxg6 28. Bxg6#.}
25... Qd7
26. Bxg6+ {If 26... Kd8 then 27. Rf8+ Qe8 28. Rxe8#.}
26... Rxg6
27. Qxg6+
27... Kd8
28. Rf8+ {The bishop cannot capture because it is pinned.}
28... Qe8
29. Qxe8#

[Event "?"]
[White "Tal"]
[Black "Furster"]
[Date "1958.??.??"]
[Result "1-0"]

{Caro-Kann Defense, 30 moves. Tal is known for his willingness to sacrifice material for an attack with unclear complications. In this game, Tal sacrifices a bishop to keep Fuster from castling. Tal was world champion from 1960-1961.}
1. e4 {Tal's favorite opening.}
1... c6 {The Caro-Kann defense.}
2. d4 {Controlling the center.}
2... d5 {Fighting back in the center.}
3. Nc3 {Developing a piece and protecting the pawn on e4.}
3... dxe4
4. Nxe4
4... Nd7 {So that after 5. Nf3 Ngf6 6. Nxf6 Black can recapture with 6... Nxf6 rather than gxf6. 4... Bf5 is more usual.}
5. Nf3 {A natural developing move.}
5... Ngf6
6. Nxf6 {Better to exchange than retreat.}
6... Nxf6 {as planned.}
7. Bc4 {The bishop is placed in an aggressive position.}
7... Bf5 {Developing the bishop before it is blocked by a pawn on e6.}
8. Qe2 {White plans to castle queenside in the near future.}
8... e6 {Blocking White's bishop and preparing to develop his own.}
9. Bg5 {Pinning the knight and preparing to castle.}
9... Be7 {Breaking the pin.}
10. 0-0-0
10... h6 {10... Nd5 may have turned out better.}
11. Bh4
11... Ne4 {Hoping to exchange the bishops and castle.}
12. g4 $1 {Now if 12... Bxh4 then 13. gxf5 Nxf2 14. fxe6 fxe6 15. Nxh4 Qxh4 16. Rhe1 Nxd1 17. Qxe6+ Kd8 18. Qd6+ Kc8 19. Be6#.}
12... Bh7
13. Bg3
13... Nxg3 {So as to be able to play 14... Qc7 and 15... 0-0-0 getting the king to safety.}
14. fxg3 {It is normally better to capture toward the center (hxg3) but White wants the f file open.}
14... Qc7 {Black would like to castle queenside next move.}
15. Ne5 {Now if 15... 0-0-0 then 16. Nxf7}
15... Bd6 {Protecting f7 with the queen.}
16. h4 {Making 16... 0-0 dangerous. Black still can't play 16... 0-0-0 because17. Nxf7 Qxf7 18. Bxe6+ wins the queen. If 16... Bxe5 17. dxe5 Black cannot play 0-0-0 because of the rook on the open d file.}
16... f6 {Once the knight is chased away Black will finally be able to castle.}
17. Bxe6 $1 {Easier said then done! White gives up the knight to keep the Black king in the center.}
17... fxe5
18. dxe5 {If Black plays 18... Bxe5 then 19. Rhe1 Bxg3 20. Bd7+ Kf8 (20... Kd8 21. Qe8+ Rxe8 22. Rxe8#.) 21. Qe7+ Kg8 22. Be6#.}
18... Be7
19. Rhf1 {Threatening 10. Bf7+. Did Tal see this position when he captured the knight with the f pawn?}
19... Rf8
20. Rxf8+
20... Bxf8
21. Qf3 {Threatening 22. Rd7.}
23... Qe7 {So if 24. Rd7 then 24... Qxe6.}
24. Qb3 {Threatening 25. Bd7+ Qxd7 26. Rxd7 Kxd7 27. Qxb7+ Ke8 28. Qxh8+}
24... Rb8
25. Bd7+
25... Qxd7 {Black will have a rook and 2 bishops for the queen. This is normally more than enough for the queen but Black's position is too shaky to survive.}
26. Rxd7
26... Kxd7
27. Qf7+ {Black will not be able to protect all his pieces.}
27... Be7
28. e6+ {If 28... Kd6 then Qf4+ wins the rook.}
28... Kd8
29. Qxg7 {Black's position is crumbling.}
29... Be4
30. Qe5 {forking the rook and bishop. Black resigned last move.}

[Event "?"]
[White "Tartakover"]
[Black "Euwe"]
[Date "1948.??.??"]
[Result "0-1"]

{Giuoco Piano, 42 moves. Tarkatover wins a pawn early in the game but underestimates Euwe's counterattack. Euwe sacrifices both knights and both rooks during the attack. Euwe was world champion from 1935-1937.}
1. e4 {A move that typically leads to more tactical possibilities than the positional 1. d4.}
1... e5
2. Nf3 {Developing the knight and attacking the pawn.}
2... Nc6 {Developing and protecting the pawn.}
3. Bc4 {The bishop is more aggressively placed on c4 than on b5. However, 3. Bb5 leads to longer-lasting pressure.}
3... Bc5 {Also good is 3... Nf6.}
4. c3 {Planning to play 5. d4. At one time 4. d3 was common leading to a quiet position. That is why the opening is called the Giuoco Piano which means quiet game. Black can now play 4... Nf6 5. d4 exd4 5. cxd4 Bb4+ 6. Nc3 Nxe4 7. 0-0 with a complicated position.}
4... Bb6 {With this move, Black is able to keep the position closed.}
5. d4 {Occupying the center. Black should not now play 5... d6 because after 6. dxe5 Nxe5 7. Nxe5 dxe5 8. Bxf7+ Black cannot play Kxf7 because of Qxd8. If 6... dxe5 then 7. Qxd8+ Kxd8 8. Bxf7.}
5... Qe7 {This would be a poor move in an open postion; here it is effective. }
6. 0-0 {White does not worry about 6... exd4 7. cxd4 Qxe4 because of 8. Re1 pinning and winning the queen.}
6... d6 {Black intends to maintain his pawn on e5. If Black were to play 6... exd4 then after 6. cxd4 White's center would be overwhelming.}
7. h3 {To prevent Bg5 putting indirect pressure on d4.}
7... Nf6
8. Re1 {Protecting the pawn.}
8... 0-0 9. Na3 {The knight is going to c4 where it will put pressure on Black's e pawn or to d5 via c2 and e3. Black cannot now play 9... exd4 10. cxd4 Nxe4 because 11. Ng5 wins the pinned knight on e4.}
9... Nd8 {To unblock the c pawn so that c6 can be used, if needed, to prevent Nd5. In an open position it would be suicidal to neglect development and move already-developed pieces. In a closed position, both sides can afford positional maneuvering.}
10. Bf1
10... Ne8 {This allows Black to play f6 in response to 11. Nc4.}
11. Nc4 {Attacking the pawn on e5. If 11... exd4 12. cxd4 White's pawn center would cause Black serious trouble.}
11... f6
12. a4 {Threatening a5 trapping the bishop. }
12... c6 {This gives the bishop an escape hatch, but it loses a pawn.}
13. Nxb6
13... axb6
14. Qb3+ {attacking the pawn on b6 and the king at the same time.}
14... Ne6 {The kinght will eventually move to f4 as part of an attack on the White king.}
15. Qxb6
15... g5 {WIth the center securely closed, Black begins a kingside attack. }
16. Bc4? {The bishop should stay on f1 to provide the king protection.}
16... h6
17. h4
17... Kh7 {This unpins the knight on e6 .}
18. hxg5? {White opens lines for Black's rook.}
18... hxg5 {Now the h file is open.}
19. dxe5
19... dxe5
20. Be3
20... Rh8 {Placing the rook on the open file.}
21. g3 {To prevent the knight from moving to f4.}
21... Kg6 {To get out of the way of the rook.}
22. Kg2 {White plans to move his own rook to the open h file.}
22... Nf4+ $1 {Black strikes while the iron is hot!}
23. gxf4
23... Bh3+ {If 24. Kg1 then after 24... gxf4 25. Bc5 Qg7 White's king is in a mating net.}
24. Kg3
24... exf4+ {White cannot play 25. Kh2 because of 25... Bg4+ 26. Kg1 Bxf3 followed by 27...Rh1#.}
25. Bxf4
25... Qd7 $1 {Threatening 26... Qg4+ 27. Kh2 Qg2#.}
26. Nh2
26... gxf4+
27. Kxf4 {Both kings are out in the open. But it is Black's move.}
27... Rh4+
28. Ke3
28... Bg2 {Threatening ...Rxe4+}
29. Nf3
29... Rxe4+ $1 {Just when White thought his king would be safe.}
30. Kxe4
30... Nd6+ {Attacking the bishop and the king.}
31. Kd3
31... Qf5+
32. Kd4
32... Qf4+ {If 33. Kc5 then 33... Qxc4+ 34. Kxd6 Qd5+ 35. Ke7 Qf7+ 36. Kd6 Qf8+ 37. Re7 Rd8+ 38. Qxd8 (38. Ke6 Bh3#.) 38... Qxd8+ 39. Rd7 Qb8+ 40. Ke6 Bxf3 and Black should win.}
33. Kd3
33... Qxc4+
34. Kc2
34... Bxf3 {Material is now equal: Black has a knight and a bishop for a rook and a pawn.}
35. b3 {This gives the White king a little air.}
35... Be4+ {Black's pieces are more active than White's.}
36. Kb2
36... Qd3
37. Rg1+
37... Kf7
38. Rac1
38... Qd2+ {The beginning of a winning combination. If 39. Ka1 then 39... Nc4 (threatening Qb2#) 40. Qxb7+ Ke6 41. Rb1 (Not 41. bxc4 Rxa4#.) 41... Qxc3+ 42. Ka2 Rxa4+ 43. bxa4 Qa3#.}
39. Ka3
39... Nc4+ {White must capture or lose his queen.}
40. bxc4
40... Rxa4+
41. Kxa4
41... Qa2+
42. Kb4
42... Qb2+ {If 43. Ka5 then 43... Qa3#. If 43. Kc5 then 43... Qxf2+ wins the queen.}

[Event "?"]
[White "Tarrasch"]
[Black "Schlecter"]
[Date "1894.??.??"]
[Result "1-0"]

{Ruy Lopez, 36 moves. Tarrasch gains an advantage in the center and gradually builds up his position. When all his pieces are in their proper positions, he begins an unstoppable kingside attack.}
1. e4 {Controlling the center and opening lines for the bishop on f1.}
1... e5
2. Nf3 {Developing and attacking the pawn.}
2... Nc6 {Guarding the pawn.}
3. Bb5 {The Ruy Lopez. The bishop attacks the the piece guarding the pawn. However, 4. Bxc6 dxc6 5. Nxe5 is not yet a threat because Black can answer with 5... Qd4 attacking the knight and the e pawn.}
3... d6 {This is called the Steinitz defense. It is sound but leads to a cramped position.}
4. d4 {Seizing the center and threatening to win a pawn by 5. Bxc6+ bxc6 7. dxe5 dxe5 8. Qxd8+ Kxd8 9. Nxe5}
4... Bd7 {Now if White plays 5. Bxc6 Black answers with 5... Bxc6 and the bishop is attacking the pawn on e4.}
5. Nc3 {Developing and protecting the center.}
5... Nf6 {Developing and attacking White's center.}
6. 0-0 {Moving the king to safety and bringing the rook into the game.}
6... Be7 {Developing and preparing to castle.}
7. Re1 {Now if 7... 0-0 then 8. Bxc6 Bxc6 9. dxe5 dxe5 10. Qxd8+ Raxd8 11. Nxe5 Bxe4 12. Nxe4 Nxe4 13. Nd3 (If 13. Rxe4 then 13... Rd8+ and mate next move) 13... f5 14. f3 and White wins a piece.}
7... Nxd4 {An alternative was 7... exd4 Black's move results in the exchange of pieces, which is good for the defending side. On the other hand, White ends up with a powerfully placed queen on d4. }
8. Nxd4
8... exd4
9. Bxd7+
9... Qxd7 {Much better was 9... Nxd7. Black's pieces would then have had much more freedom of movement. The bishop on e7 could have gone to f6 and a rook could have been placed on e8 exerting pressure on the center.}
10. Qxd4 {White now has a clear advantage in space because the pawn on e4 controls more space than the pawn on d6 and because of the powerfully placed queen.}
10... 0-0
11. b3 {The bishop on the a1-h8 diagonal will menace the Black king.}
11... Rfe8 {Placing the rook on the half-open file and leaving f8 open for the bishop where it will help guard g7.}
12. Bb2
12... Bf8
13. Rad1 {Developing the rook to the center. 14. e5 is now threatened becuase 14... dxe5 would be met by 15. Qxd7 Nxd7 16. Rxd7. If 14... Rxe5 then the same thing would happen after 15. Rxe5.}
13... Qc6
14. Rd3 {The rook can attack Black's kingside and protect the pawn on e4 if necessary.}
14... Re6 {Black's plan is to put pressure on White's e pawn and eventually free himself with f5 or d5.}
15. Rde3
15... Rae8
16. h3 {To prevent ...Ng4}
16... Qb6
17. Qd3 {The side with the advantage in space should generally avoid exchanges. Often, when the queens are exchanged, there is no attack left.}
17... c6 {Planning the freeing move: 18... d5.}
18. Na4 {White has found a way to prevent the freeing move.}
18... Qc7
19. c4
19... Nd7 {To allow ...f6 blocking the a1-h8 diagonal.}
20. Kh1 {White forsees that Black will play f6 and is preparing an eventual Rg1 followed by g4 and then g5 attacking the pawn on f6.}
20... f6
21. Qc2 {White plans to bring the knight on a4 back to c3 but doesn't want Black to be able to attack the queen with ... Nc5.}
21... Ne5 {The knight is on its way to f7 to help defend the king.}
22. Nc3 {The knight is on its way to f5. Knights work most effectively at close range. Bishops work best at a distance.}
22... Nf7
23. g4 {White cannot play Ne2 immediately because Black would answer with f5.}
23... Qa5 {So that 24. Ne2 would be met with 24... Qxe1+.}
24. Rd1
24... Qb6
25. h4 {White is justified attacking with pawns on the kingside as long as Black is unable to open up the center by exchanging pawns.}
25... Ne5
26. Rg3 {Once the pawn on g4 is exchanged for the pawn of f6, this rook will be very threatening to the Black king.}
26... Nf7
27. f3 {Freeing the knight of the responsibility of guarding the pawn on e4 }
27... Nh8
28. Ne2 {The knight continues on its journey to f5.}
28... Qc7 {Bringing the queen back to help defend the king.}
29. Rdg1 {There is a lot of power ready to be unleashed against the Black king.}
29... Qf7
30. Nd4
30... R6e7
31. g5 {White's attack has reached it climax and Black is defenseless.}
31... fxg5
32. Rxg5
32... g6
33. Nf5 {All White's pieces are cooperating in the attack.}
33... Re5
34. f4 $1 {If 34... Rxe4 then 35. Qc3 threatening 36. Qxh8#. Black would have nothing better than 35... Bg7 which loses to Nxg7. }
34... Rxf5
35. exf5
35... Bg7
36. fxg6 {If 36... hxg6 then 37. Bxg7 37... Kxg7 (Not 37... Qxg7 38. Rxg6 Nxg6 39. Rxg6 winning the queen.) and White can play either 38. f5 or 38. h5 with an overwhelming position}

[Event "?"]
[Site "New York"]
[Date "1857"]
[White " Marache "]
[Black " Morphy "]
[Result "0-1"]

1. e4 e5
2. Nf3 Nc6
3. Bc4 Bc5
4. b4 {The Evans Gambit. White gives up a pawn in
order to gain time to play c3 attacking the bishop
and then d4 forming a strong pawn center.}
4... Bxb4 {Bb6 declining the pawn is also perfectly
5. c3 Ba5
6. d4 exd4
7. e5? {A mistake which allows black to get in 7...d5
opening the diagonal of his queen bishop and gaining
time attacking White's king bishop. 7. 0-0 is
correct.. then Black if he wishes can take yet
another pawn with 7...dxc3 but this variation which
is called the "Compromised Defense" does not have
it's name for nothing!}
7... d5
8. exd6 {Black has no reason to fear the opening of
the king file for after 8...Qxd6 he will be as well
developed as White. It is when you are behind in
developement that you must be wary of the game
becoming more open.}
8... Qxd6
9. 0-0 Nge7 {Developing his knight. He does not
place it on f6 for then White could check on the
king file.}
10. Ng5? {A premature attack. White has nothing
better than Ba3 followed by 11. cxd4 when he does
not have sufficient compensation for his pawn minus.}
10... 0-0
11. Bd3 Bf5 $1 {A good exchange sacrifice. 11...h6 was
also an adequate defense.}
12. Bxf5 Nxf5
13. Ba3 Qg6
14. Bxf8 Qxg5 {Now White's kingside has no pieces to
defend it.}
15. Ba3 dxc3 {Picking up another pawn and making it
difficult for White to develop his knight.}
16. Bc1 {Bringing the bishop to the defense of his
king and vacating a3 for his knight.}
16... Qg6
17. Bf4 Rd8
18. Qc2 Ncd4
19. Qe4 ({Leads to a beautiful finish. The variations
that follow after} 19. Qa4 {are also pretty.} 19...b5 $1
20. Qxa5 Ne2+ 21. Kh1 Nxf4 22. Rg1 (22. g3
Qc6+ 23. f3 Qxf3+ $1 24. Rxf3 Rd1+ 25. Rf1
22...Rd1 23. g3 (23. g1xd1 Qxg2#) 23...Qc6+
24. f3 Qxf3#)
19...Ng3 $1 {White resigns If 20. Qxg6 Nde2#).}

[Event " World Championship"]
[Site "London"]
[Date "1866"]
[White " Steinitz "]
[Black " Anderssen "]
[Result "0-1"]

1. e4 e5
2. f4 exf4
3. Nf3 g5
4. Bc4 g4
5. Ne5 {The Salvio Gambit}
5... Qh4+
6. Kf1 Nh6 {Guarding his f7 and developing his knight.
Later 6...Nc6 was shown to refute the Salvio. A
long analysis begins with 7. Nxf7 Bc5 8. Qe1 g3
9. Nxh8 Bf2.}
7. d4 {Taking possession of d4 protecting his knight
thus making it more secure and opening the line of
his queen bishop.}
7... d6 {Developing with a tempo.}
8. Nd3 {The only move.}
8... f3 {This pawn was doubly threatened.}
9. g3 {9. g2xg3? would expose White's king too much
after 9...gxf3 followed by Bh3+.}
9... Qe7 {If Qh3+? 10. Ke1 Qg2? 11. Nf2 and the
Queen is trapped.}
10. Nc3 {Developing and guarding the king pawn.}
10... Be6 {Developing and offering the exchange of
bishops. After 11. Bxe6 fxe6 White's queen knight
would no longer exert pressure on his d5. 11. Bb3
is best now.}
11. d5 $6 {The prelude to an enterprising knight
sacrifice which Anderssen however with ingenious
play refutes. }
11... Bd7
12. e5 {Without this follow up White's last move
would simply be bad for it blocks his king bishop
diagonal denies his knight d5 and leaves his e5 and
d4 squares weak. }
12... dxe5
13. Nxe5 Qxe5
14. Bf4 {Bringing the bishop to this active position
with tempo the beginning of the attack.}
14... Qg7 $1 {14...Qh5 planning Qh3+ might look better
in view of White's dangerous looking reply but Black
is ready for it. After 14...Qh5 15. Qd4 the
position becomes wild.}
15. Nb5 {Threatening Nxc7+ winning the rook. If
15...Bxb5 16. Bxb5+ Nd7 17. Bxc7 White's bishops
are dangerous if 15...Na6 16.Qe1+ Kd8 17. d6
with a powerful attack.}
15... Bd6 $1 {With this clever move Black offers the
exchange after 16. Bxd6 cxd6 17. Nc7+ Kd8 18.
Nxa8 Nf5 the advantage would be Black's. His pieces
are active while White's knight is useless at a8.}
16. Qe1+ {Preventing Black from castling and preparing
to bring the Queen to the attack.}
16... Kd8
17. Bxd6 {Part of the same attacking plan begun with
his last move.}
17... cxd6
18. Qb4 {Threatening 19. Nxd6 with enormous
pressure..18...Bxb5 would give up a vital defensive
18... Nf5 {Guarding the queen pawn. 19. Nxd6 would
accomplish nothing now Black would simply exchange
19. Bd3 {Threatening 20. Bxf5 followed by 21. Nxd6.}
19... Na6 {With this and his succeeding move Black
blocks White's queen off from the diagonal on which
it threatens his queen pawn.}
20. Qa3 Nc5
21. Bxf5 {Expecting of course 21...Bxf5 after which
he would play 22. Nxd6. White would then win his
piece back for Black's bishop and knight would be
threatened simultaneously. It would then be anybody's
21... Qh6 $3 {What a shock this must have been to
White! Black now threatens Qd2 which would force
mate. From this square Black threatens Qe2+ 23.
Kg1 Qg2#. White could not defend with Rg1 or Re1
for Black would mate on e2 in the first case and g2
in the second.}
22. Bd3 {The only move. If 22. Re1 Qh3+ and Qg2#.
If 22. Rg1 Qh3+ 23. Ke1 Re8+ 24. Kd1 Qxh2 wins.
If then 25. Re1 Rxe1+ 26. Kxe1 Qe2#.}
22... Re8 {Threatening Qh3+ and Qg2#. White's reply
is forced.}
23. h4 Qd2 {Threatening Qg2#.}
24. Rg1 Re2 $1 {White resigns as mate is unavoidable.
A most entertaining finish.}

[Event " World Championship (17)"]
[Site "London"]
[Date "1834"]
[White " La Bourdonnais "]
[Black " McDonnell "]
[Result "1-0"]

1. d4 d5
2. c4 dxc4
3. e3 e5
4. Bxc4 exd4
5. exd4 {White has an isolated queen pawn but
dynamic attacking possibilities as compensation. The
position is equal.}
5... Nf6
6. Nc3 Be7
7. Nf3 0-0 {Both sides have been developing.}
8. Be3 c6 {Taking possession of the central square
d5 and planning to plant a knight there.}
9. h3 {To prevent black from playing Bg4 which would
be an annoying pin and put indirect pressure on
White's isolated Queen pawn.}
9... Nd7
10. Bb3 Nb6
11. 0-0 Nfd5 {It is better to put the other knight
here and leave the King knight to defend the
12. a4 {A move that loses more than it gains. It
threatens to dislodge Black's knight by a5 and
forces Black to play a5 loosening his knight on b6.
But this is less serious than the weakening of
White's b4.}
12... a5
13. Ne5 {This powerful outpost is typical of the
dynamic possibilities made possible by an isolated
Queen pawn.}
13... Be6
14. Bc2 {Aiming at Black's kingside.}
14... f5? {This denies Black the option of ever
driving away White's knight with f6 and loosens his
bishop on e6. The move is aggressive in character
but in this position it is White who has the attacking
15. Qe2 {Developing the Queen.}
15... f4? {Black continues his misguided attacking
attempt while reopening White's King bishop
diagonal. Overestimation of the attack was very
common in nineteenth century chess.}
16. Bd2 {Now White is threatening to win a pawn with
17. Nxc6}
16... Qe8
17. Rae1 {It is not clear why White does not develop
his King rook to this square instead. According to
International Mast Jack Peters La Bourdonnais had a
strange liking for boxing in his King rook!}
17... Bf7 {Black hopes to continue his attack with
18...Bh5 at the same time this move involves a trap
which White deliberately falls into.}
18. Qe4 {Threatening 19. Qxh7# Black's reply is
forced for 18...Bg6? loses his pawn.}
18... g6
19. Bxf4 $1 Nxf4
20. Qxf4 Bc4 {Wins the exchange but...}
21. Qh6 Bxf1
22. Bxg6 {Very elegant.}
22... hxg6
23. Nxg6 {White menaces Black's King bishop and so
gains time to play 24. Qh8+ and drive the Black King
to its doom.}
23... Nc8 ({Black could have prolonged the game with}
23...Bf6 24. Rxe8 Rfxe8 25. Kxf1 Bxd4)
24. Qh8+ Kf7
25. Qh7+ Kf6
26. Nf4 {Threatening 27. Ne4#.}
26... Bd3
27. Re6+ Kg5
28. Qh6+ Kf5
29. Re5#

[Event " World Championship (4)"]
[Site "Havana"]
[Date "1892"]
[White "Steinitz"]
[Black "Tchigorin"]
[Result "1-0"]

1. e4 e5
2. Nf3 Nc6
3. Bb5 Nf6
4. d3 {This solid variation was a favorite of
4... d6
5. c3 {Guards his d4 against a knight invasion
prepares for d4 if convenient and secures a retreat
for the king bishop at c2 so that Black can not
exchange it for his queen knight or queen bishop.}
5... g6 {The fianchetto of the king bishop is a sound
procedure. Also good was 5...a6 (to be able to drive
the bishop away with b5 when desirable.) 6. Ba4 Be7
followed by 0-0.}
6. Nbd2 {A quite satisfactory developement for the
knight which is why it does not matter that it is
deprived of c3. There is nothing wrong with the
temporary blocking of the queen bishop for the Lopez
is a positional opening in which events develop
slowly. But 6. Bg5 or 6. 0-0 followed by 7. Bg5 is
also good.}
7. Nf1 {To maneuver the knight to e3 putting pressure
on Black's d5 and f5. This procedure was originated
by Steinitz in one of the games of his match with
Blackburne in 1876. Later it became standard in many
variations of the Lopez. Also very good was first 0-0
and then Re1 followed by Nf1. But Steinitz was fond
of delaying castling when such a strategy was
playable In this way he kept open the option of
castling on the queenside.}
7... 0-0
8. Ba4 {There is a good point to this seeming waste of
time. White plans to respond with Qe2 if Black should
play d5 guarding his king pawn and preventing the
exchange of queens. If Black should then play Bd7
White wants to have a retreat for his king bishop at
c2 so that Black cannot force its exchange with
8... Nd7 {This would be a good move if Black planned
to follow it up with Nb6 and d5 advancing in the
center. However Black played it with the idea of
continuing in this way; Nc5 Ne6 (The knight will be
loose on c5 after Black plays d5.) Ne7 and finally
d5. An awfully slow plan! Black had two good
alternatives; 8...a6 followed by b5 and d5 (or Na5
followed by c5 putting pressure on Whites d4 if White
plays Bb3 instead of of Bc2 and 8...d5 at once.
Indeed there is a certain logic to the latter move;
White has lost a tempo with 8. Ba4 so Black can
afford to lose one by moving his queen pawn twice.}
9. Ne3 Nc5?
10. Bc2 Ne6
11. h4 {Starting an attack against Black's king.
White plans to play h5 and hxg6 opening his rook
file. By playing this move White has definitely
committed himself to queenside castling for his
kingside will be too exposed for him to castle
11... Ne7
(11...h6 12. h5 g5 13. Nf5 )
(11... f5 12. exf5 gxf5 13. d4 $1 exd4 14. Nxf5 dxc3
15. Nxg7 {eliminating
black's most important defensive piece.} 15...cxb2
16. Bxb2 Nxg7 {and the exposed position of Black's
king especially his vulnerable dark squares mean a
lost game.})
12. h5 d5
13. hxg6 fxg6? {Much better was 13...hxg6
after which Black's game might still be tenable. The
text move it is true opens Black's king bishop
file but he can make little use of it while there is
now a terrible weakness along Black's g8-a2 diagonal.
The way in which White takes advantage of this
weakness is most instructive.}
14. exd5 $1 {Surprising at first glance for White
eliminates his strong center pawn and is left with a
backward pawn on d3.}
14... Nxd5
15. Nxd5 {The next step in White's plan.}
15... Qxd5
16. Bb3 {Now we can see the point of White's last
two moves. this bishop bears down on Black's weak
16... Qc6
17. Qe2 {Developing the queen and clearing the first
rank for queenside castling.}
17... Bd7 {Developing the bishop.}
18. Be3 {White plans to get in d4 after he castles
which will get rid of his backward queen pawn and
give him access to the a1-h8 diagonal in addition to
the one he already possesses.}
18... Kh8 {Getting off the bishop's diagonal.}
19. 0-0-0 Rae8 {Developing the rook on the same file
as White's queen.}
20. Qf1 {It is necessary to remove the queen from the
indirect threat of Black's rook. At the same time
this move prepares a brilliant combination.
Precisely because this move is so necessary it had
the psychological advantage of not arousing black's
20... a5 {Black hopes to start a counter attack with
a4 and a3. If he had seen what was coming he
probably would have avoided it with 20...Rf5 or Nf4.}
21. d4 exd4 {Forced if 21...e4? 22. d5 followed by
23. dxe6 attacking black's bishop.}
22. Nxd4 Bxd4
( 22...Nxd4 23. Rxh7+ Kxh7 24.
Qh1+ {forces mate.})
( 22...Qa6 23. Bc4 Qa8 {takes Black's queen out of
the game. })
( 22...Qe4 23. Bc2 Qg4 (23...Qe5
24. Bxg6) 24. f3 Qg3 25. Nf5 gxf5 26. Rxd7
{with a crushing position.})
23. Rxd4 $1 {A surprising move and the move that
follows is still more suprising!}
23... Nxd4
24. Rxh7+ $3 {Leading to a swift and very colorful
24... Kxh7
25. Qh1+ Kg7
26. Bh6+ Kf6 (26...Kh8 27. Bxf8+ {and mate the
next move.})
27. Qh4+ Ke5
28. Qxd4+ {Black resigns - If 28...Kf5 29. Qf4#}

[Event "World Championship (1)"]
[Site "New York"]
[Date "1907"]
[White "Marshall"]
[Black "Lasker"]
[Result "0-1"]

1. e4 e5
2. Nf3 Nc6
3. Bb5 Nf6
4. d4 {This move is objectively much less strong than
4. 0-0, but it leads to the type of open game that
Marshall loved.}
4.. exd4
5. 0-0 Be7 {Developing the bishop and preparing to
castle. 5.. Nxe5 would lead to a disadvantage after
6. Re1, d5 7. Nxd4.}
6. e5 {This pawn on the fifth rank cramps Black's king
position . On the other hand, Black may be able to
play f6 at some time and open a file for his rook.
In some circumstances, the advanced pawn may even
become weak and subject to attack. Unlike any other
chess piece, a pawn can not move backwards!}
6.. Ne4 {There is no other square on the which this
knight could find security. At e5, it can be
protected by d4, and if White takes it e.p. d6, the
knight can recapture.}
7. Nxd4 {Regaining the pawn.}
7.. 0-0 {Continuing his developement. 7..Nxe5?? would
lose a piece after 8. Re1, f5 9. f3.}
8. Nf5 {To exchange this knight for Black's king
bishop, which would give White the two bishops and
leave Black slightly vulnerable on the dark squares.}
8.. d5 {This developing move protects his knight on
e5, and opens the diagonal of his queen bishop, which
now threatens White's knight.}
9. Bxc6 {The move that had usually been played here
was 9. Nxe7+, and this is probably best. After the
following exchanges, a position arises in which Black
has an advantage in developement, and also pressure
against White's king pawn. The situation is by no
means one sided, however; Black has some
vulnerability on the dark squares and his broken up
pawns on the queen side are weak.}
9.. bxc6
10. Nxe7+ Qxe7
11. Re1 {This move which indirectly protects the king
pawn, is forced. If 11. Bf4?, f6 12. f6, Rxf6 and
White already behind in developement, must lose more
time. If f3??, Qc5+ 12. Kh1, Nf2+ wins the exchange.
If Black now plays 11. Qxe5??, 12. f3 wins a piece.}
11.. Qh4 {This move is sometimes used as an example of
Lasker's well known skill in applying the
psychological element to chess. The objectively best
move here is 11..f6, which would open the king bishop
file and allow Black to make use of his more active
pieces. However, Lasker feels that for this
particular opponent it will be psychologically more
difficult if he plays more aggressively and goes over
to the attack. The reason? Marshall was a player
who always strove for the initiative, and he was one
of the greatest attacking and combinative players of
all time. The defense was an uncomfortable and
unfamiliar role for him.}
12. Be3 {Guarding his threatened f2. If 12. f3 at
once was probably also good.}
12.. f6
13. f3 {To drive the knight away from the attack.}
13.. fxe5 $5 {An elegant and most surprising sacrifice.}
14. fxe4 d4
15. g3?
(15. Bc1, Qf2+ 16. Kh1, Bg4 17. Qd2,
Qf1+ 18.Rxf1, Rxf1#)
( 15. Bd2, Bg4 16. Qc1, Rf2
{and there is no defense to the threat of Rxg2+,
Kxg2, Bh3+, Kh1, Qf2 or Kg3, Qg4+ and mate next
({-White should have played} 15. Qe2 dxe3 16.
Qxe3 { Black's pieces would still be more active, but
the position has been considerably simplified and
Black's horrible pawn position probably gives White a
slight edge.})
15.. Qf6
16. Bxd4
(16. Bc1, Qf2+ 17. Kh1, Bg4 {wins the
exchange, for the threat of Bf3# forces White to
play} 18. Qxg4, Qxe1+)
(16. Bd2 Qf2+
17. Kh1 Bh3 18. Rg1 h5 $3 {The threat is now Bg4
followed by Bf3+ and mate next move} 19. Na3 $1 (19. Qxh5
Qxg1+ 20. Kxg1 Rf1# {a very pretty variation!})
is this the end of the story? Some annotators,
including Richard Reti in his famous book Masters of
the Chessboard, have thought so, but this is not the
case. Let this be a lesson; take no opinion as
gospel, even if it is expressed by a well known
Grandmaster! Tarasch carries out the above analysis
a move further; White has 19. Na3! Then after}
19..Bg4 20. Rf1 Bxd1 21. Rxf2 Rxf2 22. Rxd1
Re2 23. Ba5 {Black has a rook and pawn for two
pieces, and the game would probably be a draw!})
16.. exd4
17. Rf1 {Black's attack is to strong for White to
avoid simplification.}
17.. Qxf1+
18. Qxf1 Rxf1+
19. Kxf1 {Black appears to have only a shade of
advantage in this ending. His bishop is better than
White's knight and his pieces will come into action
faster than White's. But as usual, his weak queenside
pawns affect the picture. Once White plays his
knight to b3, they will be under considerable
pressure. Now, however, Lasker with an almost
magical charm finds away to obtain a decisive
19.. Rb8 $1 {Instead of giving a bishop check on a6 or
h3, Black plays this surprising but far stronger
move. By forcing White's reply, Black denies White's
knight the crucial b3 square.}
20. b3 Rb5 $3 {Still leaving his bishop at home,
Black moves his rook to an active position on the
fourth rank. To his frustration, White now finds
that he can not develop his knight. If 21. Nd2, Rh5
22. Kg1 Rc5 23. Rc1. (If 23. Nc4, Bh3. )
23..Ba6 threatening Bd3, and White is helpless. To
avoid this, White is forced to advance his bishop pawn
to the forth rank, which will give Black a passed
queen pawn.}
21. c4 Rh5 {Forces White to take a move to protect
his queen rook pawn, thereby giving White no time to
play b4 to stop Black from playing c5.}
22. Kg1 c5 {Now it is a protected passed pawn.}
23. Nd2 Kf7 {If Black delayed developing his king,
White would play 24. Rf1 and temporarily keep it out
of the game.}
24. Rf1+? {Whites only chance was 24. a3, attempting
25. b4 to eliminate the protector of Black's passed
24.. Ke7
25. a3 {To late!}
25.. Rh6 {The fourth rank now occupied by his bishop
pawn, Black places his rook on the third rank, which
by reason of the removal of this same pawn is now the
most active rank.}
26. h4 {So that his king will not be tied down to the
defense of this pawn. If 26. b4, Ra6 when 27. Ra1
can be answered by 27..b4 and White's rook pawn is
26.. Ra6 {Forcing White either to tie his rook down to
this pawn's defence, or play a4 and renounce the
possibility of b4 forever.}
27. Ra1 Bg4 {Finally developing the bishop.}
28. Kf2 Ke6 {Bringing his king forward to help his
passed pawn.}
29. a4 {There is nothing better. If 29. Nf3 to
prevent Black's king from reaching e5, then 29..Bxf3
30. Kxf3 Ke5 followed by Rf6+ wins the king pawn.
White, of course can not play Re1 without losing his
queen rook pawn.}
29.. Ke5
30. Kg2 Rf6 {Now that he need not worry about b4 by
White, Black brings his rook to the open file.}
31. Re1 d3 {With the Black king so close for
protection, this pawn can safely advance.}
32. Rf1 Kd4 {If now 33. Nf3+, Bxf3+ {{Not 33..
Kxe4??, 34. Re1+, Kf5 35. Re5+, Kg6 36. Rg5+ and
White wins the bishop! (Or 33.. Ke3?? 34. Re1#!)
34. Rxf3 d2 {and this pawn can not be stopped from
33. Rxf6 gxf6
34. Kf2 {At the moment, Whites K pawn is protected by
his knight, and his king keeps Black's king from
invading. But one of these pieces has no move!
Black's next two moves mark time, so that White
exhausts his reserve of pawn moves.}
34.. c6
35. a5 a6
36. Nf1 Kxe4
37. Ke1 Be2
38. Nd2+ Ke3
39. Nb1 f5 {So that White can not check on e4 after
Black's capture of White's king knight pawn.}
40. Nd2 h5
41. Nb1 Kf3
42. Nc3 Kxg3
43. Na4 f4
44. Nxc5 f3
45. Ne4+ Kf4
46. Nd6 c5 {If now 47. Nb7 or any other knight move,
47.. Ke3 followed by mate with either pawn.}
47. b4 cxb4
48. c5 b3
49. Nc4 Kg3
50. Ne3 b2